skip navigation

Add your conference to our Justice Events calendar


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the NCJRS Abstracts Database. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.

  NCJ Number: NCJ 182362   Add to Shopping cart   Find in a Library
  Title: Careers in Crime and Substance Use: Final Report
  Document URL: PDF 
  Author(s): Christopher Uggen ; Melissa Thompson
  Corporate Author: University of Minnesota
Dept of Sociology
United States of America
  Date Published: 04/2000
  Page Count: 72
  Annotation: This report summarizes a recent examination of the effects of work on crime and drug use, as well as the effects of drug use on subsequent illegal earnings.
  Abstract: The study analyzed data collected in the 1970s as part of the National Supported Work Demonstration Project, an experimental study of the effects of employment on criminal offenders, drug addicts, and youth dropouts. Supported Work randomly assigned persons to work in small crews in subsidized employment for up to 18 months. Respondents provided detailed information on monthly drug use, criminal activity, and employment for up to 36 months. By tracking participants over time, the program examined both the time until recidivism and month-to-month changes in work, crime, and drug use. The current analysis goes beyond previous evaluations of the program by applying new statistical techniques that yield support for previous findings as well as new evidence on the relationships among work, drugs, and crime. The study first used event-history analysis to examine the experimental effects of employment on recidivism to drug use and crime. Second, the research applied models of within-person change to examine how drug use and other changing life circumstances affected the amount of money participants earned illegally each month. Findings show that the experimental work treatment was successful in reducing rates of arrest, but not drug use among ex-addicts. Although Supported Work did not reduce drug use, the multivariate model shows that regular employment and the perceived risk of losing one's job were negative predictors of cocaine and heroin use. There was the greatest support for the "opportunity" portion of the multivariate model, with deviant friends and frequent illegal opportunities significant predictors of recidivism to both drug use and crime. There was also some evidence for a causal relationship between heroin and cocaine use and illegal earnings in the within-person analysis. Recommendations are offered for future research and policy. 8 tables, 5 figures, and 77 references
  Main Term(s): Criminology
  Index Term(s): Ex-offender employment ; Drug Related Crime ; Employment-crime relationships ; Juvenile employment-unemployment comparisons ; Recidivism causes ; NIJ final report
  Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
US Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
United States of America
  Grant Number: 98-IJ-CX-0036
  Sale Source: National Institute of Justice/NCJRS
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849
United States of America

NCJRS Photocopy Services
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
United States of America
  Type: Report (Study/Research)
  Country: United States of America
  Language: English
  Note: Dataset may be archived by the NIJ Data Resources Program at the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data
  To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.