skip navigation

Justinfo Subscribe to Stay Informed

Add your conference to our Justice Events calendar


NCJRS Abstract


Subscribe to Stay Informed
Want to be in the know? JUSTINFO is a biweekly e-newsletter containing information about new publications, events, training, funding opportunities, and Web-based resources available from the NCJRS Federal sponsors. Sign up to get JUSTINFO in your inbox.

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Library collection.
To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the NCJRS Abstracts Database.

How to Obtain Documents
NCJ Number: NCJ 196664     Find in a Library
Title: Growing Importance of Ukraine as a Transit Country for Heroin Trafficking, Final Report
  Document URL: PDF 
Author(s): Mary Layne
Date Published: 06/2002
Page Count: 28
  Annotation: This paper reports on research undertaken to identify drug smuggling routes both from producer countries and in Ukraine, the types of drugs smuggled, and conveyances used; the research also focused on the development of a methodology for estimating the amount of heroin passing through Ukraine.
Abstract: As background information, this report discusses the scope of the drug problem in Ukraine and anti-drug law enforcement mechanisms. The body of the report addresses heroin trafficking to and through Ukraine from Southwest Asia and estimates for the amount of heroin transiting Ukraine. In developing the latter estimate, the researchers worked backwards from consumption estimates for Western Europe (Crime and Narcotics Center, 2000) and then operated with the assumption that this demand is met almost exclusively by heroin from Southwest Asia, which has smuggling routes through Ukraine. Of the 75 percent of heroin smuggled via the Balkan route, the estimation methodology assumed that 25 percent transits through Ukraine. Of the 25 percent smuggled via the old Silk Road route, it was assumed that 25 percent of that was smuggled from Russia through Ukraine. To estimate the total amount transiting Ukraine, the researchers added the amounts smuggled through Ukraine from each route, plus seizures in Ukraine, to yield a low estimate of 8.9 metric tons, a mean estimate of 14.4 metric tons, and a high estimate of 20 metric tons annually. This report advises that improvements be made in the estimate of heroin transiting Ukraine. This can be done with better consumption estimates (the current model does not include any consumption along smuggling routes) and improved intelligence on the proportion of heroin in each route that transits Ukraine. The report concludes that the importance of Ukraine to drug traffickers as a transit corridor to western and central Europe continues to increase. This smuggling is primarily the activity of organized criminal groups. 4 figures, 18 references, and appended information on heroin cultivation and production
Main Term(s): International drug law enforcement
Index Term(s): Heroin ; Estimated crime incidence ; Estimating methods ; Trend analysis ; International cooperation ; Drug smuggling ; Foreign criminal justice research ; NIJ final report ; Ukraine
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
US Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
United States of America
Grant Number: 2000-IJ-CX-0008
Sale Source: National Institute of Justice/NCJRS
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849
United States of America

NCJRS Photocopy Services
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
United States of America
Type: Program/Project Description
Country: United States of America
Language: English
  To cite this abstract, use the following link:

* A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's web site is provided.