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NCJ Number: NCJ 206089     Find in a Library
Title: Impact Munitions Use: Types, Targets, Effects
  Document URL: PDF 
Author(s): Ken Hubbs ; David Klinger
Date Published: 10/2004
Page Count: 16
  Annotation: This report presents findings from a study on the circumstances in which less-lethal impact munitions are used by law enforcement officers and their effects on individuals in the field.
Abstract: Law enforcement officers are often called upon to control large unruly crowds or potentially dangerous individuals. Law enforcement, military, and private industry have worked together to develop less-lethal means and techniques with which to subdue individuals or crowds. The focus of the current study was on impact munitions, which are designed to temporarily incapacitate an individual with less danger of injury or death for both the individual and the officers involved. Researchers gathered data from 106 United States and Canadian law enforcement agencies regarding their use of less-lethal weapons and impact munitions, in particular. Case-by-case information on 373 incidents was gathered concerning where impact munitions were used, how they were used, and their impact on suspects. The findings suggest that impact munitions, when used from a proper firing distance, are useful in resolving potentially violent encounters; more than 90 percent of the incidents studied were resolved without the subsequent use of lethal force. Overall, training in the use of impact munitions was considered key to their effective use. Improvement on impact munitions should further reduce the risk of accident death or injury to suspects and officers. It was also noted that impact munitions should be clearly identifiable from lethal munitions to reduce the chance of officer error. Future research should address deficiencies in the manufacture of impact munitions and in the training for their use.
Main Term(s): Less Lethal/ Nonlethal Weapons
Index Term(s): Case studies ; Police equipment ; NIJ grant-related documents ; Canada ; United States of America
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
US Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
United States of America
Grant Number: 98-LB-VX-K006
Sale Source: National Institute of Justice/NCJRS
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849
United States of America

NCJRS Photocopy Services
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
United States of America
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Country: United States of America
Language: English
Note: NIJ Research for Practice, October 2004
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