skip navigation

Add your conference to our Justice Events calendar


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the NCJRS Abstracts Database. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.

  NCJ Number: NCJ 230444     Find in a Library
  Title: Managing Drug Involved Probationers with Swift and Certain Sanctions: Evaluating Hawaii's HOPE: Executive Summary
  Document URL: PDF 
  Author(s): Angela Hawken Ph.D. ; Mark Kleiman Ph.D.
  Date Published: 12/2009
  Page Count: 7
  Annotation: This is the executive summary of an evaluation of HOPE initiative, which is a community-supervision strategy for substance-abusing probationers in Hawaii.
  Abstract: HOPE (Hawaii Opportunity Probation With Enforcement) as a pilot project reduced drug use, crime, and incarceration, resulting in a savings to the government of approximately $6,000 per participant per year through reduced incarceration. The program cost about $1,400 per participant per year, over and above the cost of routine probation, with most of the additional expenditure spent on treatment. Just over half of the HOPE probationers never violated the rules of the program by missing a drug test or testing positive for drugs over the course of their first year in the program. HOPE achieved its goals of reductions in drug use, new crime, and incarceration among high-risk probationers and in a randomized controlled trial among general-population probationers. Compared to otherwise similar offenders on routine probation, HOPE probationers were arrested less than half as often. They averaged approximately the same number of days in jail for probation violations, and they spent about one-third as many days in prison on revocations and new convictions. A probationer newly assigned to HOPE faces drug testing that is not only more frequent than encountered on routine probation (six times a month compared to once a month), but also faces random rather than prescheduled testing. Under HOPE, every detected violation leads to a hearing and a sanction. As a result, a new HOPE probationer is more likely to experience a court hearing and jail than an otherwise similar probationer not assigned to HOPE. The deterrent effect is so significant, however, that after the initial month or two, a HOPE probationer requires less effort to supervise than a non-HOPE probationer.
  Main Term(s): Corrections effectiveness
  Index Term(s): Drug prevention programs ; Probation conditions ; Drug treatment ; Drug testing ; Drug offenders ; Probation condition violations ; Probation evaluation ; Probation casework ; Probation effectiveness ; NIJ final report ; Hawaiian Islands
  Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
US Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
United States of America
  Grant Number: 2007-IJ-CX-0033
  Sale Source: National Institute of Justice/NCJRS
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849
United States of America

NCJRS Photocopy Services
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
United States of America
  Type: Program/Project Evaluation ; Report (Summary)
  Country: United States of America
  Language: English
  Note: See NCJ 229023 for Final Report
  To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.