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NCJ Number: NCJ 221363     Find in a Library
Title: Race and Gang Affiliation: An Examination of Multiple Marginality
Author(s): Adrienne Freng ; Finn-Aage Esbensen
  Journal: Justice Quarterly  Volume:24  Issue:4  Dated:December 2007  Pages:600 to 628
Date Published: 12/2007
Page Count: 29
  Annotation: In an attempt to expand the literature on race/ethnicity and gang membership and utilizing multisite survey data, this study examined the multiple marginality framework of gang involvement for Whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics.
Abstract: In reference to whether multiple marginality is a viable explanation of gang membership, the results indicate general support for multiple marginality as a viable framework for predicting current gang membership. The majority of multiple marginality concepts were found to be important predictors of gang membership (highest parental education, limited education opportunities, school commitment, attitudes towards police, neutralization, and street socialization). The ecological and economic factors, however, were not found to be significant, except for parental highest education. In addition, family variables did not appear to be important factors for gang membership, once the effects of other factors were controlled. In reference to whether multiple marginality applies globally or uniquely to different racial ethnic groups, the results provide a somewhat mixed conclusion. The results indicate a similarity of marginalization factors for African-Americans and Hispanics regardless of gang involvement. The multiple marginality framework, developed by Vigil (1988, 2002) introduces specific consideration of the role of race/ethnicity in gang formation, something lacking in prior research. The purpose of this research was to address theoretical and methodological shortcomings in the literature and expand knowledge regarding race/ethnicity and gangs beyond specific racial/ethnic group membership and geographic location. It specifically examined whether the multiple marginality perspective, as outlined by Vigil and as conceptualized, predicted gang involvement both globally and differentially by race/ethnicity. Utilizing survey data, the study assessed the applicability of the multiple marginality framework as an explanation for gang membership and the extent to which it explained gang involvement for individuals from various racial/ethnic groups. Tables, references and appendixes A and B
Main Term(s): Gangs
Index Term(s): Group behavior ; Black/African Americans ; Caucasian/White Americans ; Criminology ; Hispanic Americans ; Ethnic groups ; Group dynamics ; Race-crime relationships ; Gang member attitudes ; Hispanic gangs
Publisher URL: 
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Country: United States of America
Language: English
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