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NCJ Number: NCJ 074239     Find in a Library
Title: Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, Volume 2
Editor(s): N Morris ; M Tonry
Date Published: 1980
Page Count: 475
Sponsoring Agency: US Dept of Justice
LEAA
National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice
United States of America

US Dept of Justice NIJ Pub
United States of America
Grant Number: 79-NI-AX-0048
Sale Source: University of Chicago Press
1427 East 60th Street
Chicago, IL 60637
United States of America
Type: Historical Overview
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: Drawing from the traditional core disciplines of criminology, as well as from those disciplines and topics that are less fashionable in criminological literature, this volume of essays examines such issues as crime and justice in early America, biology and crime, European criminal procedure, and the prisoners' rights movement.
Abstract: Introductory essays discuss recent works by historians on the criminal law and its institutions. One essay traces the early development of professional policing in the U.S. and recounts the evolution of a widely held view that violent crime rates declined during much of the 19th century. The essay on 18th and 19th century England describes major changes in the institutions of English criminal law between 1700 and 1900 and surveys works by social historians that seek to explain those changes. The essay on biology and crime presents the findings of psychophysiological, neurophysiological, electroencephalographic, and pharmacological research on the relations between physiology and antisocial behavior. The longitudinal research on the criminality of families, twins, and adoptees amplifies these findings. Hypothesizing that biology plays some role in antisocial behavior, an article assesses the relevant literature on biology and crime to support theory. An essay on French and West German criminal procedure contributes to an ongoing debate among lawyers and comparativists about the workings of criminal justice institutions in those countries. The article describes both the formal organization of the French and West German criminal justice systems and the findings of empirical research on European police practice. As in America, the police control criminal investigations and the prosecutor possesses substantial autonomy over the conduct of criminal prosecution. However, American plea bargaining has no analog in France or West Germany. The remaining essays treat topics that are more familiar to readers of criminological journals. Three review major research subjects: criminal juries, deterrence, and criminal careers. One is a critique of Marxist criminology and another an assessment of the impact of prisoners' rights litigation. References, footnotes, and tabular data are provided. (Author abstract modified)
Index Term(s): Behavioral and Social Sciences ; Habitual offenders ; Biological influences ; Prisoners rights ; Judicial process ; Jury selection ; Deterrence ; Criminology ; Comparative analysis ; Jury decisionmaking ; Marxism ; Nonbehavioral correlates of crime ; Police crime-prevention ; England ; France ; Germany ; United States of America
Note: Grant awarded to the University of Maryland.
   
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