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NCJ Number: 184377 Find in a Library
Title: Neighborhood Collective Efficacy -- Does It Help Reduce Violence?
Series: NIJ Research Preview
Author(s): Robert J. Sampson; Stephen W. Raudenbush; Felton Earls
Date Published: April 1998
Page Count: 2
Sponsoring Agency: Gang Intelligence Strategy Committee

John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
Chicago, IL 60603
National Ctr on Minority Health and Health Disparities
Bethesda, MD 20892-5465
National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
Washington, DC 20531
National Institute of Justice/NCJRS
Rockville, MD 20849
NCJRS Photocopy Services
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
Grant Number: 93-IJ-CX-K005
Publication Number: FS 000203
Sale Source: National Institute of Justice/NCJRS
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849
United States of America

NCJRS Photocopy Services
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
United States of America
Document: PDF
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Document
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This study, part of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, examined whether violent behavior is reduced by neighborhood "collective efficacy," which refers to "mutual trust among neighbors combined with willingness to intervene on behalf of the common good, specifically to supervise children and maintain public order."
Abstract: This aspect of the study divided Chicago into 343 "neighborhood clusters," each inhabited by approximately 8,000 people, and each defined by specific geographic boundaries and internally homogeneous on a variety of census indicators. Questions asked of residents were intended to elicit their views of how much informal social control, social cohesion and trust, and violence existed in their neighborhoods. The researchers found that in neighborhoods scoring high on collective efficacy, crime rates were 40 percent below those in lower scoring neighborhoods. This difference supported the study's basic premise, i.e., that crime rates are not solely attributable to individuals' aggregate demographic characteristics; rather, crime is a function of neighborhood social and organizational characteristics. The researchers found that various dimensions of social composition influence the level of neighborhood collective efficacy. In neighborhoods where concentrated poverty was high, collective efficacy was low. Ethnicity/immigration was another important dimension, because areas of ethnic and linguistic heterogeneity may have less capacity to realize common values. Where this dimension was high, collective efficacy was low. In contrast, neighborhoods where residential stability was strong also tended to be strong on collective efficacy. Implications of study findings for crime prevention efforts are briefly discussed.
Main Term(s): Community crime prevention programs
Index Term(s): Community conflict; Community involvement; Community relations; Community resources; Community support; Illinois; Juvenile/community relations; NIJ grant-related documents; Social conditions; Violence causes; Violence prevention
Note: Dataset may be archived by the NIJ Data Resources Program at the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data
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