skip navigation

Add your conference to our Justice Events calendar


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the NCJRS Abstracts Database. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.

  NCJ Number: NCJ 194605     Find in a Library
  Title: Cocaine Alternative Treatment Study: A Multi-site, Randomized Controlled Trial of Acupuncture for the Treatment of Cocaine Addiction
  Author(s): Arthur Margolin Ph.D. ; Herbert D. Kleber M.D. ; S. Kelly Avants Ph.D. ; Janet Konefal Ph.D. ; Frank Gawin M.D. ; Elena Stark M.D. ; James Sorensen Ph.D. ; Eleanor Midkiff Ph.D. ; Elizabeth Wells Ph.D. ; T. Ron Jackson M.S.W ; Milton Bullock M.D. ; Patricia D. Culliton M.A. ; Roger Vaughan Dr.PH ; Sharon Boles Ph.D.
  Corporate Author: Yale University School of Medicine, Substance Abuse Ctr
United States of America
  Date Published: 2002
  Page Count: 28
  Annotation: This study investigated auricular acupuncture's effectiveness as a treatment for cocaine addiction by using multiple control conditions.
  Abstract: The research design was a randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical trial; and six community-based clinics were involved, along with three hospital-affiliated clinics and three methadone programs. There were 620 cocaine-dependent patients (412 "primary" users and 208 methadone-maintained users). Patients were randomly assigned to auricular acupuncture, a needle insertion control, or a no-needle relaxation control. Treatments were provided five times weekly for 8 weeks. Concurrent drug counseling was also offered to patients in all conditions. The main outcome measures were cocaine use during treatment and the 3-month and 6-month post-randomization follow-up based on urine toxicology screens, along with retention in treatment. An analysis of urine samples found a significant overall reduction in cocaine use, but no differences by treatment condition. There were also no differences among the conditions in treatment retention. Patients in all three conditions received equivalent "doses" of the study treatments (approximately two per week); however, counseling sessions were poorly attended. Thus, within the clinical context of this study, acupuncture was not more effective than a needle insertion or relaxation control in reducing cocaine use; therefore, the study does not support the use of acupuncture as a stand-alone treatment for cocaine addiction or in contexts in which patients receive only minimal concurrent psychosocial treatments. Future research should examine the contribution of acupuncture to addiction treatments when provided in an ancillary role. 4 tables and 34 references
  Main Term(s): Drug treatment
  Index Term(s): Drug dependence ; Cocaine ; Treatment techniques ; NIJ final report
  Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
US Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
United States of America

National Institute on Drug Abuse
United States of America

Conrad Hilton Foundation
United States of America

Office of National Drug Control Policy
United States of America
  Grant Number: 1997-IJ-CX-0026; RO1-DA08513; RO1DA00277
  Sale Source: NCJRS Photocopy Services
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
United States of America
  Type: Report (Study/Research)
  Country: United States of America
  Language: English
  Note: *This document is currently unavailable from NCJRS. Dataset may be archived by the NIJ Data Resources Program at the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data. ***Document is not currently available from NCJRS.
  To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.