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NCJ Number: NCJ 203569   Add to Shopping cart   Find in a Library
Title: Evaluation of Saliva/Oral Fluid as an Alternate Drug Testing Specimen
  Document URL: PDF 
Author(s): Dennis J. Crouch ; Jayme Day ; Jakub Baudys ; Alim A. Fatah
Corporate Author: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
United States of America
Date Published: 07/2004
Page Count: 75
  Annotation: This study determined whether saliva/oral fluid is a suitable specimen for drug testing in the criminal justice system.
Abstract: The study consisted of a literature review and a clinical study that used codeine (opiate) as a model drug in assessing the practical problems of collecting and analyzing oral fluid samples. The literature review of 85 articles found that testing for drugs of abuse in saliva can be readily performed; however, more scientific data are needed for a full assessment of the utility of saliva as a testing medium for amphetamines, cannabinoids, and opiates. The advantages of using saliva as the testing medium are that it can be collected easily, noninvasively, and under direct supervision; the saliva-drug concentration should reflect blood-drug concentrations; and saliva is relatively free of blood constituents, so it can be easily processed for testing by conventional drug screening and confirmation methods. The clinical study found that the technique used to collect saliva affected the drug concentration. Nonstimulated spitting was the most effective technique in producing the highest levels of drug concentration. The current method of using a specified concentration of saliva immunoglobulin G was apparently ineffective in determining whether an oral sample had been diluted. More research is required to identify a chemical marker that will ensure the validity of saliva specimens. Future research should also determine how drug concentrations in saliva correlate with drug concentrations in other body fluids, as well as how factors such as pKa, physical size, and the degree of protein-binding lipophilicity affect drug transfer into saliva. 27 tables, 9 figures, and 80 references
Main Term(s): Drug testing
Index Term(s): Drug use ; Saliva sample analysis ; NIJ final report ; Drug Use Indicators
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
US Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
United States of America
Grant Number: 94-IJ-R-004
Sale Source: National Institute of Justice/NCJRS
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849
United States of America

NCJRS Photocopy Services
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
United States of America
Type: Report (Study/Research) ; Test/Measurement
Country: United States of America
Language: English
Note: Dataset may be archived by the NIJ Data Resources Program at the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data
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