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NCJRS Celebrates National Library Week April 12-18

National Library Week

Started in 1958, National Library Week is a nationwide observance celebrated by all types of libraries - including the NCJRS Virtual Library. NCJRS invites you to explore the breadth and scope of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection and services. With more than 220,000 collection documents and 60,000 online resources, including all known Office of Justice Programs works, it is one of the world’s largest criminal justice special collections.

We encourage your Feedback. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Virtual Library and Abstracts Database, how you access the collection, and any ways we can improve our services.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Library collection.
To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the NCJRS Abstracts Database.

How to Obtain Documents
 
NCJ Number: NCJ 227929   Add to Shopping cart   Find in a Library
Title: Statistical Validation on the Individuality of Tool Marks Due to the Effect of Wear, Environment Exposure and Partial Evidence
  Document URL: PDF 
Author(s): Benjamin Bachrach
Corporate Author: Intelligent Automation, Inc
United States of America
Date Published: 06/2009
Page Count: 78
  Annotation: The primary goal of this study was to evaluate an objective, quantifiable method for determining the effect of wear, environmental conditions, and partial information on the reliability of tool-mark evidence in its ability to meet admissibility criteria for having been made by a tool in the suspect’s possession.
Abstract: The study advises that the conclusions reported apply only to the specific tool considered in this study, which was a diagonal cutter tool that made marks on copper wire exposed to salt water of various concentrations. The preliminary experiment showed that the tool marks deteriorated slowly in air and tap water, but deteriorated dramatically in salt water. The most significant wear on the cutting tool occurred within the first individual cuts (one or two), after which the effect of tool wear lessened rapidly. The study verified that the tool marks created by diagonal cutters are easily identifiable after 300 cuts, and the rate of change of the similarity measure between tool marks suggests that identification of the tool from the marks it makes would be possible well beyond 300 cuts. On the other hand, the experiment showed that although the rate of change of the tool’s working surface is slow, the tool marks created in close proximity to each other after a small number of cuts will have greater similarity than tool marks made many cuts apart. The study confirmed researchers’ expectations that identification of a tool mark exposed to the environment becomes more challenging in proportion to the time of exposure and the corrosive properties of the exposure media. In addition, the study of partial tool marks validated the premise that a partial tool mark can be as reliable as a complete tool mark in matching the mark to a given tool. Extensive tables and figures, 34 references, and appended description of tool-mark preparation
Main Term(s): Criminology
Index Term(s): Rules of evidence ; Toolmark identification ; Suspect identification ; Environmental influences ; Probabilistic evidence ; NIJ final report
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
US Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
United States of America
Grant Number: 2006-DN-BX-K029
Sale Source: National Institute of Justice/NCJRS
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849
United States of America
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Country: United States of America
Language: English
   
  To cite this abstract, use the following link:
https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=249940

* A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's web site is provided.