skip navigation

Add your conference to our Justice Events calendar


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the NCJRS Abstracts Database. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.

  NCJ Number: NCJ 230569     Find in a Library
  Title: History of Street Gangs in the United States
  Document URL: PDF 
  Author(s): James C. Howell ; John P. Moore
  Corporate Author: National Gang Ctr (NGC)
United States of America
  Date Published: 05/2010
  Page Count: 25
  Annotation: This bulletin examines the emergence and growth of gang activity in the Northeast, Midwest, West, and South regions of the United States.
  Abstract: This report looks at the history of street gangs in the United States. The report presents information on gang activity based on the four major census areas in the United States: the Northeast, the Midwest, the West, and the South. The history of the emergence and growth of gangs is presented separately for each region. The review found that there were important differences in the history of gang emergence in these four areas. In the Northeast and Midwest, the earliest gangs arose along with the growth of immigrants from Europe, primarily White ethnic groups. In the West, gang members were of Mexican descent. In the Northeast and Midwest regions, street gangs began among adult-dominated groups engaged in criminal activities, whereas in the West, street gangs emerged from aggressive groups of young Mexican men. The review also found that each of the regions also saw a distinct second wave of Black gang development that resulted from a shift of the Black population from the South to the North and the West. In addition, gang culture in the West has continued to be reinforced by wave after wave of immigrants from Central America and Mexico. Figures and references
  Main Term(s): Gangs
  Index Term(s): Organized crime ; Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) ; Maturation theory ; Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) ; Gang involvement in organized crime ; Gang violence ; Hispanic gangs ; BJA grant-related documents ; OJJDP grant-related documents
  Sponsoring Agency: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
US Dept of Justice
United States of America

Bureau of Justice Assistance
US Dept of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
United States of America
  Grant Number: 2007-MU-BX-K003; 2007-JV-FX-0008
  Sale Source: NCJRS Photocopy Services
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
United States of America

National Gang Ctr (NGC)
PO Box 12729
Tallahassee, FL 32317-2729
United States of America
  Type: Report (Study/Research)
  Country: United States of America
  Language: English
  Note: National Gang Center Bulletin No. 4, May 2010
  To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.