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NCJ Number: 48508 Find in a Library
Title: UNOBTRUSIVE MEASURES - NONREACTIVE RESEARCH IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
Author(s): E J WEBB; D T CAMPBELL; R D SCHWARTZ; L SECHREST
Corporate Author: Rand McNally and Co
United States of America
Date Published: 1966
Page Count: 237
Sponsoring Agency: Rand McNally and Co
Chicago, IL 60680
US Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare
Washington, DC 20203
Contract Number: 3-20-001
Publication Number: PROJECT C-998
Sale Source: Rand McNally and Co
Box 7600
Chicago, IL 60680
United States of America
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: MULTIPLE METHODS FOR NONOBTRUSIVE RESEARCH IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES ARE NOTED AND DISCUSSED.
Abstract: FIRST, APPROXIMATIONS TO KNOWLEDGE ARE DISCUSSED, WITH ATTENTION TO RESEARCH DATA NOT OBTAINED BY INTERVIEW OR QUESTIONNAIRE. OPERATIONISM AND MULTIPLE OPERATIONS, INTERPRETABLE COMPARISONS AND PLAUSIBLE RIVAL HYPOTHESES, INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL VALIDITY, SOURCES OF INVALIDITY OF MEASURES, REACTIVE MEASUREMENT EFFECTS AND RESPONDENT ERROR, INVESTIGATOR ERROR, VARIETIES OF SAMPLING ERROR, ACCESS TO CONTENT, AND OPERATING EASE AND VALIDITY CHECKS ARE EXAMINED. NEXT, RESEARCH METHODS GEARED TO THE STUDY OF PHYSICAL TRACES OF PAST BEHAVIOR ARE DISCUSSED. NATURAL EROSION AND NATURAL ACCRETION MEASURES, CONTROLLED EROSION AND CONTROLLED ACCRETION MEASURES, CORRECTION AND INDEX NUMBERS, AND THE OVERALL EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL EVIDENCE DATA ARE EXAMINED. THE FOLLOWING SECTION DISCUSSES AND EVALUATES SOME USES OF DATA PERIODICALLY PRODUCED FOR OTHER THAN SCHOLARLY PURPOSES, BUT WHICH SOCIAL SCIENTISTS OFTEN EXPLOIT. ACTURIAL RECORDS, POLITICAL AND JUDICIAL RECORDS, GOVERNMENT RECORDS, THE MASS MEDIA, DATA TRANSFORMATION AND INDICES OF THE RUNNING RECORDS, AND THE OVERALL EVALUATION OF RUNNING RECORDS ARE EXAMINED. THE NEXT SECTION CONTINUES THE DISCUSSION OF ARCHIVES, CENTERING ON THOSE WHICH ARE MORE CONTINOUS AND USUALLY NOT PART OF THE PUBLIC RECORD. SALES RECORDS, INDUSTRIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL RECORDS, AND WRITTEN DOCUMENTS ARE DISCUSSED. THIS IS FOLLOWED BY AN EXAMINATION OF SIMPLE OBSERVATION, WITH EMPHASIS ON EXTERIOR PHYSICAL SIGNS, EXPRESSIVE MOVEMENT, PHYSICAL LOCATION, CONVERSATION SAMPLING, TIME DURATION, AND TIME SAMPLING AND OBSERVATION. THE FINAL SECTION DISCUSSES THE INVESTIGATOR'S INTERVENTION INTO THE OBSERVATIONAL SETTING. AVOIDING HUMAN INSTRUMENT ERROR, PHYSICAL SUPPLANTING OF THE OBSERVER, THE INTERVENING OBSERVER, ENTRAPMENT, PETITIONS AND VOLUNTEERING, AND AN APPRAISAL OF HIDDEN HARDWARE AND CONTROL ARE EXAMINED. AN EXTENSIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY IS PRIVIDED. AN INDEX IS INCLUDED. (KBL)
Index Term(s): Behavioral and Social Sciences; Critiques; Research methods
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=48508

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