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NCJ Number: 70017 Find in a Library
Title: Crime and Criminal Policy in Some Western European and North American Countries
Journal: International Review of Criminal Policy  Issue:35  Dated:(1979)  Pages:55-65
Author(s): H J Schneider
Corporate Author: United Nations
Dept of International Economic and Social Affairs
United States of America
Date Published: 1980
Page Count: 11
Sponsoring Agency: United Nations
New York, NY 10017
United Nations Publications
New York, NY 10017
Sale Source: United Nations Publications
Room DC2-853, 2 UN Plaza
New York, NY 10017
United States of America
Type: Overview Text
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This analysis of crime trends and various crime prevention theories and programs in Western Europe and North American focuses on organized crime, terrorism, and juvenile delinquency.
Abstract: Criminality is primarily a problem of large cities in the U.S. and Europe, and the social problems caused by urban living are exacerbated by poor environmental design and unrealistic television portrayals of crime. In many countries there is a widespread concern about the new dimensions of international and transnational criminality: terrorism and organized crime. A review of crime statistics for the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the Federal Republic of Germany indicates that crime in these countries has risen during the past decade, although crimes of violence are increasing less rapidly than crimes against property. A long-term analysis of crime in Denmark, France, and the U.S. shows that crime has remained at a constant level since the mid-19th century and may even have decreased in the U.S. over the past century. As women adjust to new roles in society and people adapt to urbanization, increased crime rates among females and in cities should return to a more normal level. The professionalization of crime, a reaction of criminals to the specialization of crime, a reaction of criminals to the specialization of modern industrial society and the corresponding sophistication of law enforcement agencies has become a major issue. Organized crime, which specializes in thefts of luxury goods, drug traffic, and counterfeiting, is well documented in North America, but has only appeared recently in Western Europe. Canada, Northern Ireland, Spain, Italy, and the Federal Republic of Germany have experienced criminal activities by terrorists. In Germany, terrorists appear to be motivated by irrational ideologies opposing bourgeois society rather than by political repression. In the United States, juvenile involvement in violent crime has increased while juvenile correctional institutions continue to constitute the major treatment approach and vandalism of school property, gang activities, and runaway children have become serious problems. Theories of city planning and architecture and crime prevention should be integrated as a crime prevention measure. In addition United Nations sponsored research programs on comparative crime statistics, crime prevention, and alternative programs for criminal offenders is recommended.
Index Term(s): Canada; Counter-terrorism tactics; Crime in foreign countries; Crime patterns; Crime prevention measures; Germany; International cooperation; International crime statistics; Juvenile delinquency research; Multinational studies; Organized crime; Survey texts; Terrorism/Mass Violence; Trend analysis; United Kingdom (UK); United Nations (UN); United States of America; Western Europe
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