skip navigation

Law Enforcement

Equipment and Facilities > Less Lethal



  • What is less-lethal technology?
    Less-lethal technology devices serve to minimize the risk of death and injury to public safety offic... Read More
    Last Updated: October 29, 2016

  • How many deaths have occurred as a result of law enforcement's use of pepper spray?
    A study of deaths from the use of oleoresin capsicum ("pepper spray") was conducted with grant money... Read More
    Last Updated: January 3, 2017

  • How do I subscribe to TechBeat?
    TechBeat is a newsmagazine from the Justice Technology Information Center (JTIC), a component of the... Read More
    Last Updated: September 11, 2017

More Q&A


  • Injuries Associated with Police Use of Force, NIJ-Sponsored, March 2018, NCJ 251532. (7 pages).
    HTML (Journal Access)   HTML (Grantee Summary)   NCJRS Abstract   

  • Local Police Departments, 2013: Equipment and Technology, BJS, July 2015, NCJ 248767. (17 pages).
    Agency Abstract   PDF (Summary)   PDF (Full Report)   TEXT  NCJRS Abstract   

  • Use of Force and Conducted Energy Devices - Interview With Geoffrey P. Alpert, NIJ, March 2012, NCJ 238512. (3 pages).
    Agency Abstract   HTML  NCJRS Abstract   

  • Comparing Safety Outcomes in Police Use-Of-Force Cases for Law Enforcement Agencies That Have Deployed Conducted Energy Devices and A Matched Comparison Group That Have Not: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation, NIJ-Sponsored, September 2009, NCJ 237965. (101 pages).
    PDF  NCJRS Abstract     Find in a Library

  • Final Technical Report Draft: Assessing Police Use of Force Policy and Outcomes, NIJ-Sponsored, May 2011, NCJ 237794. (287 pages).
    PDF  NCJRS Abstract     Find in a Library

  • Special Panel Review of Excited Delirium, NIJ-Sponsored, December 2011, NCJ 237637. (50 pages).
    PDF  NCJRS Abstract   

More Publications

Related Links

More Related Links
March 9, 2018