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NCJ Number: 14457 Find in a Library
Title: EVOLUTION OF THE HOLD-UP IN BELGIUM FROM 1966-1971
Journal: REVUE DE DROIT PENAL ET DE CRIMINOLOGIE  Issue:5  Dated:(FEBRUARY 1974)  Pages:473-484
Author(s): N WEINSTOCK
Date Published: 1974
Page Count: 12
Publication Number: U
Format: Article
Language: French
Country: Belgium
Annotation: DEFINITION OF THE HOLD-UP AS A DISTINCT TYPE OF OFFENSE, BASED ON A STUDY OF BELGIAN HOLD-UPS FROM 1959 TO 1965 AND A FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF HOLD-UPS FROM 1966 TO 1971.
Abstract: THE VICTIMS OF HOLD-UPS ARE ORGANIZATIONS USUALLY LOCATED IN URBAN AREAS WHERE LARGE AMOUNTS OF MONEY OR VALUABLES ARE CONCENTRATED IN THE HANDS OF A FEW PEOPLE. STUDIES DIVIDE THESE INTO BANKS, CARRIERS OF CASH DEPOSITS, BUREAUS OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE, COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS, JEWELRY STORES, AND POST OFFICES. THE HOLD-UP IS USUALLY CARRIED OUT BY A GROUP WITH A WELL-DEVELOPED PLAN IN WHICH EACH MEMBER HAS A SPECIALIZED SET OF TASKS. THE CRIME TAKES PLACE OVER A VERY SHORT TIME AND THE CRIMINALS USE CARS (OFTEN STOLEN) AND FIREARMS, ALTHOUGH THE LATTER ARE USUALLY FIRED ONLY AS A LAST RESORT. ON THE WHOLE, THE FEATURES OF THE HOLD-UP REFLECT AN ADAPTATION OF CRIMINALITY TO THE CONDITIONS OF AN URBAN, INDUSTRIALIZED, AND MECHANIZED SOCIETY. THE NUMBER OF REPORTED HOLD-UPS IN BELGIUM VARIES FROM ONE AGENCY TO ANOTHER SINCE THERE IS NO STANDARDIZED DEFINITION OF THE CRIME. CLEARANCE RATES FOR HOLD-UPS WERE 42 PERCENT OVER EACH OF THE TIME PERIODS STUDIED. --IN FRENCH
Index Term(s): Belgium; Offense classification; Property crimes; Robbery
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http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=14457

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