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NCJ Number: 173642 Add to Shopping cart Find in a Library
Title: Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, Volume 23
Editor(s): M Tonry
Date Published: 1998
Page Count: 463
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
Washington, DC 20531
University of Chicago Press
Chicago, IL 60637
US Dept of Justice NIJ Pub
Washington, DC 20531
Grant Number: 92-IJ-CX-K044
Publication Number: ISBN 0-226-80833-5
Sale Source: University of Chicago Press
1427 East 60th Street
Chicago, IL 60637
United States of America
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: These seven essays examine the current knowledge on deterrent effects of criminal sanctions, laws and policies related to sexual predators, crime and human development, intermediate sanctions, juvenile violence in Europe, excusing the new excuse defenses, and patterns of serial and mass murder.
Abstract: An analysis of criminal deterrence research concludes that evidence for a substantial deterrent effect is much firmer than it was two decades ago, although four types of gaps in knowledge on the links between policy actions and behavior make it difficult to assess the effectiveness of policy options for deterring crime. An overview of policies toward sexual predators concludes that effective policies should include long sentences for high-risk and dangerous offenders, the use of actuarial assessments of risk to make determinations about dangerousness, and a focus on the prevention of violent and sexual reoffending. A review of developmental criminology emphasizes the importance of finding variables that determine or mediate the variation of behavior with age. An analysis of intermediate sanctions in sentencing guidelines notes that concepts such as parsimony and mechanisms such as categorical exceptions have promise for scaling punishment severity to crime seriousness and for saving money. A paper on juvenile crime and violence in Europe reports an increase in youth violence in the United States and 10 European countries, as well as variations in the mix of law enforcement and prevention efforts undertaken in different countries. An examination of issues and arguments concerning excusing concludes that the current system of criminal blame and punishment is coherent, is fair in principle, and can accommodate the claims for new excuses. A discussion of serial and mass murderers notes that both offenders are typically white males in their late 20s or 30s, although their targets and methods often differ. Figures, tables, and reference lists
Main Term(s): Criminology; Developmental criminology
Index Term(s): Criminal responsibility; Dangerousness; Defense; Deterrence; Europe; Foreign juvenile delinquency; Guilty but mentally ill; Insanity defense; Intermediate sanctions; Juvenile crime patterns; Juvenile delinquency factors; McGruff; Research uses in policymaking; Sentencing guidelines; Serial murders; Sex Offender Registration; United States of America
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