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NCJ Number: 193227 Find in a Library
Title: Moving Toward Justice for Female Juvenile Offenders in the New Millennium: Modeling Gender-Specific Policies and Programs
Journal: Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice  Volume:18  Issue:1  Dated:February 2002  Pages:37-56
Author(s): Barbara Bloom; Barbara Owen; Elizabeth P. Deschenes; Jill Rosenbaum
Date Published: 2002
Page Count: 20
Type: Issue Overview
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This article presents an overview of efforts to address gender-specific programming for female juvenile offenders on the State and Federal level.
Abstract: Until recently girls and young women have been largely overlooked in the development of juvenile justice policy and programs. With the increase in the number of female offenders committing violent and property offenses, increased Federal support to State and local efforts to address this problem is being undertaken. Research shows that the needs of girls and young women facing involvement in the juvenile justice system are tied to specific identifiable risk factors. These risk factors include such personal factors as family issues; sexual, physical, and emotional abuse; and inadequate academic and social skills. Racism, sexism, and economic discrimination should also be addressed in any discussion of female delinquency. Running away, truancy, early sexual behavior, substance abuse, and other pre-delinquent behaviors are related to these initial risk factors. Girls and young women have been largely ignored in the development of policy and programs. The juvenile justice system is not equipped to deal with the risks and needs of girls and young women. The lack of early identification and assessment opportunities is aggravated by the scarcity of appropriate and effective community-based prevention and early intervention strategies. Inadequate planning and funding, the absence of a continuum of care, and the general lack of gender-appropriate programs, placement, detention, and aftercare services is further evidence of this inattention. The basic elements and gender-appropriate interventions have been articulated through research and best practices, based on developmental, psychological, social, educational, and cultural characteristics of girls and young women. Some States, like Minnesota and Oregon, have invested in gender-specific programming and policies. Other States have only begun to address the issue in conducting an assessment of the problem. The Challenge Activity E amendment to the Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 has provided the initial momentum toward shaping the polices and programs for the next century. 7 tables, 4 notes, 18 references
Main Term(s): Gender issues; Juvenile justice reform
Index Term(s): Evaluative research; Female juvenile delinquents; Female status offenders; Juvenile court reform; Juvenile justice policies; Male female offender comparisons; Offender classification
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