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NCJ Number: 209923 Find in a Library
Title: Recidivism and Resilience in Juvenile Sexual Offenders: An Analysis of the Literature
Journal: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse  Volume:13  Issue:3/4  Dated:2004  Pages:257-279
Author(s): Jill Efta-Breitbach; Kurt A. Freeman
Date Published: 2004
Page Count: 23
Type: Literature Review
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: Following a review of the research on risk factors for sexual and nonsexual recidivism, this article surveys the research literature on the strengths of offenders (resilience) that may reduce recidivism, with attention to the usefulness of this literature for the treatment of juvenile sexual offenders (JSOs).
Abstract: Most of the research conducted to date does not permit a clear identification of factors that predict sexual compared with nonsexual recidivism. Prominent characteristics and risk factors linked with JSO recidivism in the literature include failure to achieve treatment success or complete treatment, a family history of dysfunction, prior abuse or mistreatment, delinquent peer relations and behaviors, characteristics of the JSO offenses, deviant arousal and/or sexual maladjustment, and mental health diagnosis and defenses. What is missing from the research is a focus on factors linked to the successes of JSOs, i.e., factors related to resiliency. Resilience is generally defined as "a central notion of successfully coping with or overcoming risk and adversity or the development of competence in the face of severe stress and hardship" (Doll and Lyon, 1998). Resilience thus requires the existence of a significant risk or threat to the individual and the individual's high quality of adaptation or development despite the risk. In identifying general qualities that promote resilience the literature has focused on above average cognitive abilities and coping strategies, high self-esteem and self-efficacy, self-regulation of control, internal locus of control, faith, and biological hardiness. Research has also identified external factors associated with resiliency, such as socioeconomic status and family environment. Many internal factors associated with resiliency are addressed in existing JSO treatment, such as increasing self-esteem, self-regulation, and skill development. Family therapy and multisystemic therapy both encompass external factors such as family. 75 references
Main Term(s): Juvenile Sex Offenders
Index Term(s): Juvenile Recidivism; Recidivism; Recidivism causes
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