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NCJ Number: 211562 Find in a Library
Title: Structural Theories and Race-Specific Drug Arrests: What Structural Factors Account for the Rise in Race-Specific Drug Arrests Over Time?
Journal: Crime & Delinquency  Volume:51  Issue:4  Dated:October 2005  Pages:521-547
Author(s): Karen F. Parker; Scott R. Maggard
Date Published: October 2005
Page Count: 27
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This study examined the impact of urban disadvantage, social disorganization, and racial-threat indicators on the increase in race-specific drug arrests from 1980 to 1990.
Abstract: The unit of analysis was U.S. cities with a population of 100,000 or more in 1980. A total of 168 cities were selected for the study. For the dependent variables, the data were UCR (Uniform Crime Reports) arrest counts. In the multivariate analysis, the dependent variables were race-specific arrest counts for three types of drug arrests: sales, possession, and total drug arrests for 1980 and 1990. Change scores in drug arrests from 1980 to 1990 were calculated. The second major data source was the 1980 and 1990 Census of Population: Social and Economic Characteristics. Independent variables were related to a number of race-specific measures of urban disadvantage: poverty, income inequality, racial residential segregation, the percentage of race-specific female-headed households receiving public assistance, and the race-specific percentage of female-headed households. There were two indicators of labor market conditions, three measures of social disorganization, and four indicators of racial threat. The findings indicate that shifts in the urban economy significantly impacted drug arrests for Blacks while having no effect on the change in drug arrests for Whites. In addition, the decline in manufacturing jobs was significantly related to arrests of Blacks for drug possession. Social disorganization measures proved equally significant for Whites and Blacks, whereas mixed support was found for the significance of racial-threat variables. The increase in social control (increase in police presence) led to more Black drug sale arrests over time while having no effect on the change in Black total and possession drug arrests. 4 tables, 3 notes, and 84 references
Main Term(s): Criminology
Index Term(s): Black/African Americans; Caucasian/White Americans; Comparative analysis; Drug law offenses; Economic influences; Police policies and procedures; Race-crime relationships; Social conditions; Urban area studies; Urban criminality
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