skip navigation


Abstract Database

Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

To download this abstract, check the box next to the NCJ number then click the "Back To Search Results" link. Then, click the "Download" button on the Search Results page. Also see the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 211980 Add to Shopping cart Find in a Library
Title: Trafficking in Persons in the United States, Final Report
Author(s): Kevin Bales Ph.D.; Steven Lize Ph.D.
Corporate Author: Croft Institute for International Studies
United States of America
Date Published: March 2005
Page Count: 160
Sponsoring Agency: Croft Institute for International Studies
University, MS 38677-0158
National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
Washington, DC 20531
National Institute of Justice/NCJRS
Rockville, MD 20849
Grant Number: 2001-IJ-CX-0027
Sale Source: National Institute of Justice/NCJRS
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849
United States of America
Document: PDF
Type: Case Study; Report (Study/Research)
Format: Document
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This research used case studies (1992-2002) to identify intervention points at each stage of the process of trafficking in persons in the United States.
Abstract: The case studies came from Southwest Florida, Chicago, and Washington, DC. For each of 12 cases/victim cohorts, researchers conducted interviews with the victim, relevant agencies, community groups, and other individuals involved in the case. The findings presented in this report address the characteristics of trafficking victims, methods traffickers used to recruit and control victims, types of work victims were forced to perform, how victims escaped from the control of traffickers, the nature and effectiveness of law enforcement and prosecution efforts, and the effectiveness of victims services. The study concludes that a lack of understanding of trafficking in persons as a crime, a lack of sensitivity to trafficking victims, a lack of law enforcement training for dealing with the crime, and the public's demand for cheap goods and services all contribute to the continuation of trafficking and forced labor in the United States. Trafficking in persons is largely a hidden crime that victimizes the poor, the uneducated, children, and impoverished immigrants seeking a better life. It is occurring in U.S. cities, suburbs, and rural areas; however, the criminal enterprises that engage in trafficking are small and fragmented, and effective interventions can significantly reduce it. The demand for forced labor can be deterred by increasing the cost of its use, in part by increasing both the likelihood and severity of penalties. The likelihood of apprehension can be increased if all levels of law enforcement are trained to deal with this crime. These actions must be combined with increased public awareness of the problem in the United States and countries of origin, the facilitation of safe and legal immigration, and the improvement of economic opportunities in the developing world. 21 tables and 79 notes
Main Term(s): Victim services
Index Term(s): Crime specific countermeasures; District of Columbia; Florida; Illinois; Interagency cooperation; NIJ final report; Offender profiles; Trafficking in Persons; Victim profiles
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.