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NCJ Number: 213988 
Title: History of Juvenile Justice (From Juvenile Justice: An Introduction, P 27-45, 2006 -- See NCJ-213986)
Author(s): John T. Whitehead; Steven P. Lab
Date Published: 2006
Page Count: 19
Sponsoring Agency: Anderson Publishing Co
Cincinnati, OH 45202
Sale Source: Anderson Publishing Co
Publicity Director
2035 Reading Road
Cincinnati, OH 45202
United States of America
Publisher: http://www.lexisnexis.com/presscenter/mediakit/anderson.asp 
Type: Curriculum
Format: Book Chapter
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This chapter discusses the development of the juvenile justice system and the early workings of the system.
Abstract: The status of “child” within society as a relatively recent phenomenon is examined as the authors illustrate how children throughout history have generally been regarded as either property or as full-fledged members of society expected to adhere to adult roles. The concept of childhood began to emerge in the 16th and 17th centuries, which corresponded to advances in medical science that extended the life cycles of humans. During the 1800s the United States experienced a mass movement toward cities, which effectively brought about the emergence of juvenile institutions as a means for dealing with a new class of urban deviant youth. The main goal of the early juvenile institutions was to handle problems associated with being poor. Early juvenile institutions were known as houses of refuge and focused on education, religious and skills training, and parental discipline. The problems associated with houses of refuge are discussed, as is the rise of the new reformatories, which employed a cottage setup intended to mimic family life. The development of juvenile courts is examined, including the debate regarding the philosophy of the court and the issue of juvenile’s constitutional rights. The doctrine of parens patriae, or “the state as parent,” is explained as the basis for the establishment of the juvenile court. Criticisms of the juvenile court and its related components are examined before the authors turn to a discussion of juvenile justice from 1920 to the 1960s. Finally, changes in the juvenile court system ushered in by challenges to the parens patriae doctrine are explored. Three discussion questions at the end of the chapter focus attention on the status of the child, houses of refuge, and parens patriae. Key terms are listed. Tables
Main Term(s): History of juvenile justice
Index Term(s): Curriculum; Survey texts
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=235498

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