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NCJ Number: 249293 Find in a Library
Title: Unintended Effects of Penal Reform: African American Presence, Incarceration, and the Abolition of Discretionary Parole in the United States
Journal: Crime & Delinquency  Volume:61  Issue:5  Dated:June 2015  Pages:719-741
Author(s): Andres F. Rengifo; Don Stemen
Date Published: June 2015
Page Count: 23
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
Washington, DC 20531
Grant Number: 2002-IJ-CX-0027
Document: HTML
Type: Report (Grant Sponsored); Report (Study/Research); Research (Applied/Empirical)
Format: Article; Document (Online)
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This study used a pooled-time series design to examine the interplay between State incarceration rates, determinate sentencing, and the size of the African-American population between 1978 and 2004.
Abstract: Consistent with prior research, findings show that larger Black populations are associated with higher incarceration rates, but that this association has weakened over time. Results also indicate that determinate sentencing is associated with lower imprisonment rates. The interaction between a higher proportion of African-American residents and determinate sentencing, however, is associated with higher incarceration rates, suggesting that in States with greater minority presence the abolition of discretionary parole amplifies the impact of punitive responses linked to racial threat. The authors argue that this unintended effect reflects the fact that formal constraints on release decisionmaking reduce the ability of justice systems to administer greater punishments to specific subpopulations. (Publisher abstract modified)
Main Term(s): Corrections policies
Index Term(s): Abolishment of parole; Black/African Americans; Determinate Sentencing; NIJ grant-related documents; NIJ Resources; Race-punishment relationship
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