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NCJ Number: 251055 Find in a Library
Title: SPI Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Response: Focused Deterrence of High-Risk Individuals
Author(s): Michael S. Scott
Corporate Author: CNA Analysis & Solutions
United States of America
Date Published: July 2017
Page Count: 38
Sponsoring Agency: Bureau of Justice Assistance
Washington, DC 20531
CNA Analysis & Solutions
Alexandria, VA 22311
Grant Number: 2013-DP-BX-K006
Sale Source: Bureau of Justice Assistance
US Dept of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
810 Seventh Street NW
Washington, DC 20531
United States of America
Type: Instructional Material (Programmed); Report (Grant Sponsored); Report (Technical Assistance)
Format: Document; Document (Online)
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: As one in a series of problem-oriented guides for the Smart Policing Initiative (SPI), this guide addresses “focused deterrence,” which is a crime-reduction strategy in which selected high-risk offenders receive concentrated law enforcement attention while being offered concentrated social services through direct, persuasive communication and rigorous follow-up of offender commitments.
Abstract: This focused-deterrence strategy stems from the deterrence theory of crime, which maintains that people are discouraged from committing crimes if they believe they are likely to be caught and punished certainly, severely, and swiftly. The evidence from assessments of the validity of this theory have determined that the certainty of punishment has a more powerful deterrent effect than the severity or swiftness of punishment. Focused deterrence intends to increase high-risk offenders’ sense of the certainty of punishment by focusing official and community attention and resources on the relatively few individuals who commit a disproportionate number of crimes, particularly violent crimes. Predictably regular monitoring of such offenders by police tends to increase offenders’ sense that any criminal behavior will be detected and punished. This monitoring effort by police is combined with the provision of resources and guidance needed to develop a non-criminal lifestyle. Helping them get a job and providing family assistance among other resources can give them a non-criminal, fulfilling life pattern they do not want to risk losing by engaging in crime they feel is certain to be detected. This guide focuses on the phases and core elements of a focused-deterrence initiative. The phases are planning and implementation, the selection of high-risk offenders, high-risk individual notification of their selection, enforcement/service delivery, follow-up communication, and assessment. The objectives for each of the phases are outlined, and guidance is provided on the performance of the objectives. 65 references and appended summaries of evaluated focused-deterrence initiatives
Main Term(s): Police policies and procedures
Index Term(s): BJA Grant-related Documents; BJA Resources; Crime prevention measures; Deterrence; Deterrence effectiveness; Habitual offenders; Problem-Oriented Policing
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