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NCJ Number: 55116 Find in a Library
Title: ANSWERS TO VIOLENCE
Journal: REVUE INTERNATIONALE DE CRIMINOLOGIE ET DE POLICE TECHNIQUE  Volume:31  Issue:2  Dated:(APRIL-JUNE 1978)  Pages:169-178
Author(s): A PEYREFITTE
Corporate Author: Revue Internationale de Criminologie et de Police Technique
Switzerland
Date Published: 1978
Page Count: 10
Sponsoring Agency: Revue Internationale de Criminologie et de Police Technique
1211 Geneve 4, Switzerland
Type: Statistics
Format: Article
Language: French
Country: Switzerland
Annotation: CAUSES AND MANIFESTATIONS OF VIOLENCE AND CRIME IN FRANCE ARE ANALYZED TO FURNISH A BASIS FOR CRIME PREVENTION.
Abstract: THE FEELING OF COLLECTIVE INSECURITY WHICH OCCURS CYCLICALLY HAS BEEN GROWING SINCE 1969 IN PROPORTION TO THE INCREASE IN VIOLENCE, NOW ONE OF THE MAJOR CONCERNS OF THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT. THE SENSE OF INSECURITY IS HEIGHTENED BY IMMEDIATE PERSONAL EXPERIENCE AS A VICTIM OR FRIEND OF A VICTIM AND BY MEDIA REPORTING; THE ELEMENTS OF THIS INSECURITY ARE FEAR, TOUCHINESS, EXASPERATION AND NERVOUSNESS, AND COLLECTIVE ANXIETY, WHICH ARE MANIFESTED AS APATHY AND CONFUSION, INDIVIDUAL TENSION, APPEALS TO PUBLIC AUTHORITIES, AND IN SOME CASES, FORMATION OF PROTECTION NETWORKS. AN OBJECTIVE VIEW OF CRIME SHOWS THAT THE CRIME RATE DROPPED IN THE LATE FIFTIES, ROSE SLIGHTLY TO MODERATELY IN THE SIXTIES, AND GREW RAPIDLY FROM 1971 TO 1976, ESPECIALLY FOR MAJOR CRIMES IN INDUSTRIALIZED AREAS. CRIMINALS COME FROM ALL DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS, BUT TEND TO BE MALES BETWEEN 16 AND 30 YEARS OF AGE, EMPLOYED EITHER AS FACTORY OR FARM WORKERS (VIOLENT CRIMES) OR AS MANUFACTURERS OR TRADESMEN (CRIMES OF CUNNING), RESIDING IN THE CITY, AND PROPORTIONALLY MORE OFTEN FOREIGN THAN NATIVE. ACCORDING TO STATISTICS, SOCIAL CONTROL OF CRIME BY THE POLICE VARIES, WITH BETTER SUCCESS FOR MURDER BUT NOT FOR ARMED ROBBERY. THE PENITENTIARY POPULATION ROSE 25 PERCENT FROM 1975 TO 1977, WITH A HIGH RELAPSE RATE FOR SHORT SENTENCES, AND CRIME COSTS TO THE PUBLIC AMOUNTED TO 39 TO 46 BILLION FRANCS AND ILLEGAL PROFITS TO 45 BILLION FRANCS. AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN THE GENERAL POPULATION IS EXPRESSED IN THE SHARED FACILITIES OF DAILY LIFE SUCH AS TRANSPORTATION, TELEPHONE BOOTHS, AND SPECTATOR SPORTS, IN THE ARTS, AND IN MOVIES; IN THE ECONOMIC SECTOR, AS VARIOUS KINDS OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME, FRAUD, AND PRESSURE EXERTED FROM POSITIONS OF POWER; AND IN SOCIAL LIFE, THROUGH ACTIVITIES OR ACTS RANGING FROM REPEATED BOMB THREATS TO DANGEROUS FORMS OF SELF-DEFENSE AND ROAD BLOCKS. THE RESULT IS ESCAPIST BEHAVIOR SUCH AS SUICIDE, INCREASED ALCOHOLISM AND RAPIDLY GROWING DRUG ADDICTION (UP 30 PERCENT ANNUALLY IN 1975 AND 1976). --IN FRENCH. (KMD)
Index Term(s): Alcohol abuse; Crime costs; Drug abuse; Fear of crime; France; Police effectiveness; Statistics; Suicide; Violence; Violent crimes; White collar crime
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