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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 114958 Find in a Library
Title: Historical Context: How Have Philosophical Foundations Changed Over Time and Why Does It Matter? (From Current Issues in Parole Decisionmaking: Understanding the Past; Shaping the Future, P 23-29, 1988, Peggy B Burke -- See NCJ-114954)
Author(s): P B Burke
Corporate Author: Cosmos Corporation
United States of America
Date Published: 1988
Page Count: 7
Sponsoring Agency: Cosmos Corporation
Bethesda, MD 20814
National Institute of Corrections
Washington, DC 20534
National Institute of Justice/
Rockville, MD 20849
NCJRS Photocopy Services
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
Sale Source: National Institute of Corrections
320 First Street, NW
Washington, DC 20534
United States of America

National Institute of Justice/
NCJRS paper reproduction
Box 6000, Dept F
Rockville, MD 20849
United States of America

NCJRS Photocopy Services
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
United States of America
Document: PDF
Type: Historical Overview
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This analysis of the history of incarceration and parole emphasizes that the modern prison is a relatively recent concept and that the rehabilitative ideal as well as other factors underlie the use of parole.
Abstract: Banishment, public shaming in the stocks, and whipping were common punishments in the colonial period. Later, Quaker reformers conceived of imprisonment both as a punishment for crime and as a mechanism for repentance. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the medical model formed the basis of corrections. Parole boards were charged with monitoring progress toward rehabilitation and to timing release accordingly. The tumult and change of the 1960's brought dissatisfaction with the criminal justice system, including parole. Social science research also began to question society's ability to rehabilitate. In the 1970's, groups with varying philosophies about crime and corrections joined together to work to abolish parole and to establish a philosophy of desert. The 1980's brought further changes, with an emphasis on incapacitation to control crime. These historical developments show that the controversies surrounding parole are part of broader debates in society regarding the purposes of criminal justice and criminal sanctions.
Main Term(s): History of corrections
Index Term(s): Correctional reform; Corrections policies; Parole
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=114958

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