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NCJ Number: 118777 Find in a Library
Title: Italy, France, and Belgium (From On Doing Less Harm: Western European Alternatives to Incarceration, P 149-194, 1988, David Fogel, -- See NCJ-118773)
Author(s): D Fogel
Date Published: 1988
Page Count: 46
Sponsoring Agency: University of Illinois at Chicago
Chicago, IL 60607-2919
Sale Source: University of Illinois at Chicago
Office of International Criminal Justice
1033 West Van Buren Street, Suite 500
Chicago, IL 60607-2919
United States of America
Type: Survey
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: Sentencing practices and alternatives to incarceration in Italy, France, and Belgium are reviewed.
Abstract: Despite the highly publicized terrorist problem, Italy does not have a criminally violent society. Sanctions can take one of five forms, excluding juvenile cases: 1) imprisonment for minor offenses; 2) semidetention in which the offender is allowed out of jail 14 hours per day to work; 3) controlled liberty, sometimes substituted for a sentence imposed for less than 3 months; 4) establishment of offender guilt without sentence imposition; and 5) ancillary measures, such as driver's license revocation. Alternatives to incarceration include probation and shortening or interrupting the prison stay. In the French criminal justice system, prosecutors do not necessarily have to prosecute; they make their decisions based on victim and witness information and on police reports. To keep prison populations down and more manageable, France has such alternatives to incarceration as suspended sentences, partial suspension (intended to reduce short prison sentences by reducing part of the prison term), and probation. Private organizations are involved with the government in probation and parole; for example, the government provides funding for private groups to manage accommodations and hostels where probationers and parolees may stay. Amnesty and suspended sentences represent the major alternatives to serving less or no prison time in France. Although Belgium has been recognized as a pioneer in the development and use of suspended sentences, its prison system is considered archaic. In addition to suspended sentences, the Belgian criminal justice system employs respites from prison, parole, provisional liberty, and short furlough programs. 88 references, 12 tables.
Main Term(s): Alternatives to institutionalization
Index Term(s): Belgium; France; Italy; Probation; Sentencing/Sanctions
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