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NCJ Number: 118980 Add to Shopping cart Find in a Library
Title: Street Gang Violence (From Violent Crime, Violent Criminals, P 198-234, 1989, Alan Weiner and Marvin E Wolfgang, eds. - See NCJ-118975)
Author(s): M W Klein; C L Maxson
Date Published: 1989
Page Count: 37
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
Washington, DC 20531
Sage Publications, Inc
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
US Dept of Justice NIJ Pub
Washington, DC 20531
Grant Number: 81-IJ-CX-0072; 84-IJ-CX-0052
Sale Source: Sage Publications, Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
United States of America
Dataset: DATASET 1
Type: Issue Overview
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This analysis of gang research and its implications for policy and program decisions emphasizes the change from street workers to police as the main information source over the last 20 years and the development of intervention programs that have been based only vaguely on the accumulated knowledge of gang structure and functions.
Abstract: The more recent research has used different data sources, but it has not invalidated the findings of the research of the 1960's. Thus, gangs are normally territorially bounded, have members from age 11 to the early 20's, are homogeneous in gender and ethnicity, are made up of clusters of subgroups that are based on age, and have three categories of members ranging from core members to fringe members. In recent years they have included more older members, have become increasingly involved in schools, and have developed in many smaller cities in the United States. Intervention efforts in the 1960's reflected the rehabilitative model and focused on individual change and value transformation. Subsequent evaluations showed these approaches to be ineffective. In recent years the programs have rested on the surveillance/deterrence model and continue on the basis of faith and conviction, because they have not been rigorously and independently evaluated. These programs need to overcome the difficulties of intervening too late to be effective and should avoid viewing natural maturation and attrition processes as proof of success. Future programs should reflect awareness that some approaches actually make the gang problem worse and should consist of area-based rather than gang-based programs. Tables, notes, and 65 references.
Main Term(s): Juvenile gang behavior patterns
Index Term(s): Crime control policies; Crime specific countermeasures
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