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NCJ Number: 119378 Find in a Library
Title: Outcomes of Contemporary Black Protest and Violence (From Violence in America, Volume 2: Protest, Rebellion, Reform, P 286-306, 1989, Ted Robert Gurr, ed. -- See NCJ-119368)
Author(s): J Button
Date Published: 1989
Page Count: 21
Sponsoring Agency: Sage Publications, Inc
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
Sale Source: Sage Publications, Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
United States of America
Type: Historical Overview
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: The nonviolent civil rights protests of the 1950's and 1960's garnered public and political support for the blacks, but the violent protests of the mid-1960's helped produce a white backlash, socioeconomic "ameliorative" reforms, and an emphasis on law enforcement and social control.
Abstract: The nonviolent civil rights demonstrations, many of which gave media attention to brutal police and citizen responses, impacted public policies and national legislation and also had significant consequences for blacks themselves and the movement generally. Mass mobilization and electoral mobilization were significant effects as was the transformation of young blacks' image of themselves. With the shattering of the era of peaceful protest in August 1965 when the Watts riot occurred in Los Angeles, other effects followed. By 1970 approximately 500 race riots had occurred, sweeping through black neighborhoods in most major U.S. cities and involving almost half a million people. The turbulent cities received increased Federal welfare expenditure. Many local governments and private agencies also implemented at least some socioeconomic reforms in response to the urban violence. Also, police and other local and State officials became increasingly concerned about maintaining peace and stability. Whites became more supportive of stricter law enforcement measures and were more likely to vote for "law and order" candidates. 95 notes.
Main Term(s): Racially motivated violence
Index Term(s): Black/African Americans; Political influences; Social conditions
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