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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 132483 Find in a Library
Title: Victimology in the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics): Theoretical Approach and Empirical Research (From Victims and Criminal Justice, P 160-178, 1991, Gunther Kaiser, Helmut Kury, et al., eds. -- See NCJ-132477)
Author(s): J Gilinskij; L Ivanov
Date Published: 1991
Page Count: 19
Sponsoring Agency: Max-Planck-Institute Fur Auslandisches und Internationales Strafrecht
Freiburg Im Breisgau D-79100,
Sale Source: Max-Planck-Institute Fur Auslandisches und Internationales Strafrecht
G├╝nterstalstra├če 73
Freiburg Im Breisgau D-79100,
Germany (Unified)
Type: Survey
Language: English
Country: Germany (Unified)
Annotation: This review of victimology in the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) considers theoretical issues in victimology, empirical victimological research, the state of "victimity" in the USSR, and the prevention of "victimity."
Abstract: The emergence of victimology as an independent academic movement began in the USSR in the mid-1960's, some 20 years after its conception as a worldwide science. The victimological aspects of crime are currently addressed in the USSR in almost all text books and criminology courses as well as in monographic literature. "Victimity" is one of the key concepts of victimology in the Soviet Union. Within this concept, there are two perspectives. One perspective views "victimity" as a person's characteristics which affect his/her risk of becoming a crime victim. Another perspective views "victimity" as a broad concept that pertains to the results of a crime. Regarding a person's "victimity" characteristics, they can include socio-psychological personality characteristics, social roles and functions, biophysical characteristics (age or sex), and the pathological state of personality (psychological or somatic illnesses). Empirical research that addresses "victimity" includes works of Frank (1972) which examined murder under aggravating circumstances. The studies found that the behavior of the victim was the immediate cause of the murder in 50 percent of the cases examined. A study by Antonov-Romanovskij and Ljutov warns against overrating the contribution of the victim in cases of rape. Prevention efforts have focused on the elimination or reduction of "victimity" factors, so as to help victims reduce their risk of victimization. 4 tables and 37 footnotes
Main Term(s): Victimology
Index Term(s): Foreign criminal justice systems; Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); Victim profiles; Victimization
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