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NCJ Number: 141607 Find in a Library
Journal: Law and Human Behavior  Volume:17  Issue:1  Dated:(March 1993)  Pages:143-169
Author(s): D E Barlow; M H Barlow; T G Chiricos
Date Published: 1993
Page Count: 27
Type: Historical Overview
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: Netherlands
Annotation: This article explores the relationship between long cycles of capitalist development and the historical formation of criminal justice policy in the United States.
Abstract: A review of the historical development of long cycles of capitalist development and criminal justice policy in the United States encompasses the first expansion (1789/93- 1820/26), the first contraction (1820/26-1845/48), the second expansion (1845/48-1873), the second contraction (1873-1893), the third expansion (1873-1913/15), the third contraction (1913/15-1940), the fourth expansion (1940- 1966/70), and the fourth contraction (1966/70-present). The study concludes that since the 1780's the U.S. economy and the world economy have experienced long periods of economic expansion followed by sustained periods of economic stagnation. During the periods of economic deterioration, unemployment and economic inequality increase substantially, and social unrest and crime become critical problems. Old forms of social control are typically replaced with newer methods of control. New techniques implemented during periods of economic decline have included the introduction of incarceration, the urban police force, community corrections, and Federal enforcement agencies. The article does not argue that there is no repression of subordinate classes during periods of economic prosperity; however, the evidence presented suggests that criminal justice innovations and radical shifts in policy are apparently concentrated in periods of poor economic conditions. 162 notes
Main Term(s): Capitalism; History of criminal justice
Index Term(s): Economic influences; Social conditions; United States of America
Note: Earlier versions of this paper were presented at meetings of the American Society of Criminology (1984, 1986) and the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (1986).
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