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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 148095 Find in a Library
Corporate Author: United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI)

Australian Institute of Criminology
Editor(s): A A del Frate; J Norberry
Date Published: 1993
Page Count: 424
Sponsoring Agency: Australian Institute of Criminology
Canberra ACT, 2601, Australia
United Nations
New York, NY 10017
United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI)
10127 Torino, Italy
Publication Number: ISBN 9-290-78024X
Sale Source: United Nations
New York, NY 10017
United States of America
Type: Survey (Cross-Cultural)
Language: English
Country: Italy
Annotation: A study initiated in 1991 examined environmental crime and the legal frameworks for environmental protection in eight developing and industrialized countries, as well as sanctioning strategies, enforcement, reform proposals, and the need for legal and policy changes to protect the environment more effectively.
Abstract: The analysis emphasized sustainable development and the implications for developing countries in which environmental protection is often hampered by a lack of resources, the pressures of poverty and unemployment, and the need for socioeconomic growth. The study focused on Africa (Nigeria and Tunisia), Asia (China and India), the Pacific region (Australia), Eastern Europe (the former Czechoslovakia), and South America (Argentina and Brazil). Major issues identified include air, water, and marine pollution; deforestation, desertification, and devastation of territories; problems associated with hazardous waste disposal; and noise pollution. The mass media, political parties, and citizens' groups are becoming increasingly interested in environmental issues. Concepts of environmental protection date from antiquity in some countries. The countries typically have a multitiered environmental protection structure that may involve national, State or provincial, and local governments. Two legal frameworks are a central environmental codes and separate laws for different environmental media. The three types of legal sanctions are criminal law, administrative sanctions, and administrative sanctions. Most of the countries lack complete knowledge about enforcement. The analysis indicated the need for comprehensive rather than piecemeal reform, attention to implementation, public access to information, education and training, research, and assistance for developing countries. Tables, chapter reference lists and notes, and appended research guidelines
Main Term(s): Criminology
Index Term(s): Crime prevention planning; Environmental laws; Environmental offenses; Environmental quality; Foreign laws
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