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NCJ Number: 148314 Find in a Library
Title: Evolution of the Hong Kong Triads/Tongs into the Current Drug Market
Journal: Journal of Third World Studies  Volume:10  Issue:1  Dated:(1993)  Pages:22-36
Author(s): S Tracy
Date Published: 1993
Page Count: 15
Type: Historical Overview
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This paper describes the history of the Hong Kong Tongs (Asian Triads or gangs), which are receiving billions of dollars from drug trafficking and are expected to become increasingly involved in Canada and the United States in the years before 1997, when the colony of Hong Kong reverts to the People's Republic of China.
Abstract: The Tongs are secret societies and that have origins in a patriotic resistance movement against Manchu rulers who had overthrown the Ming rulers in 1644 and formed the Ching dynasty. After the British arrived in Hong Kong in 1841, the Triads gradually increased in membership. During the 20th Century, some became involved in narcotics trafficking, gambling, and prostitution. Hong Kong currently has about 50 Triads, 15 of which regularly come to the attention of the police. Some have as little as 100 members, while others have up to 33,000 members. Triads continue to be involved in gambling, prostitution, extortion, protection, loansharking, and narcotics. Most Triad activity in Hong Kong is in youth gangs, whose members are ages 12-18, and street gangs, whose members are usually ages 16-25. Hong Kong is a major transit point for drugs into the United States. Triads are thought to be moving control over their criminal enterprises overseas, including the United States, in anticipation of Hong Kong's returning to the control of the People's Republic of China in 1997. The United States now has more than 30 identifiable Tongs. Some Chinese-Vietnamese are in Chinese Tongs. The Tongs are likely to become the feared crime groups of the future in the United States. 36 reference notes
Main Term(s): Drug law offenses
Index Term(s): Asian gangs; Crime in foreign countries; Hong Kong; Organized crime
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