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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 148503 Find in a Library
Title: Cliques, Gangs and Networks
Journal: Sociology and Social Research  Volume:32  Dated:(July-August 1948), 928-937
Author(s): C B Spaulding
Date Published: 1948
Page Count: 10
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice/
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United States of America
Document: PDF
Type: Literature Review
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This article defines cliques, gangs, and networks; surveys the literature to show the widespread appearance of these types of groupings; identifies some of the functions of these groupings; and suggests a hypothesis as the basis for possible future research.
Abstract: The clique is a small, informal, intimate, non-kin, face-to-face group that usually manifests a "we-feeling," some well-defined customary rules of conduct, and a well- developed internal structure. A "gang" is a "clique" in which the sense of unity has been increased and the internal organization strengthened through conflict. The "network" is a set of relatively stable emotional linkages between persons that result in selective channels of communication through which intimate information and emotions may be freely transmitted to the members of a community so linked. The literature shows the typical existence of cliques or gangs in factories and some other work places, in schools or various types, in cities and other communities of relatively small size, and among the working classes of metropolitan communities. These cliques or gangs are integrated into networks of relatively intimate relationships that constitute a basic social continuum. Membership in the clique or gang meets the social needs of members and helps them deal with may practical problems. The interpersonal relationships of cliques and gangs also rigorously control members' behavior. The proposed hypothesis is that additional research may reveal that the whole typically secondary society of the city is riddled with cliques, gangs, and networks that constitute basic devices for the adaptation of persons to those societies. These groups are dynamic forces within the more formal framework of established institutions. 65 footnotes
Main Term(s): Juveniles
Index Term(s): Gangs; Group behavior; Juvenile/Youth Gangs; Social cohesion; Social organization
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