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NCJ Number: 151018 Find in a Library
Title: Sex Discrimination -- Subtle and Covert (From Constructions of Deviance: Social Power, Context, and Interaction, P 133-142, 1994, Patricia A and Peter Adler, eds. -- See NCJ-151012)
Author(s): N V Benokraitis; J R Feagin
Date Published: 1994
Page Count: 10
Sponsoring Agency: Wadsworth Publishing Co
Belmont, CA 94002
Sale Source: Wadsworth Publishing Co
20 Davis Drive
Belmont, CA 94002
United States of America
Type: Survey
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: Because overt sex discrimination is emphasized by society and in the media, insufficient attention is paid to subtle and covert sex discrimination.
Abstract: Subtle sex discrimination has five basic characteristics: (1) it can be intentional or unintentional; (2) it is visible but often goes unnoticed because it has been built into norms, values, and ideologies; (3) it is communicated both verbally and behaviorally; (4) it is usually informal rather than formal; and (5) it is most visible on individual rather than organizational levels. Subtle sex discrimination can take the form of condescending chivalry, which refers to superficially courteous behavior that is protective and paternalistic but that treats women as subordinates, or benevolent exploitation. Covert sex discrimination refers to unequal and harmful treatment of women that is clandestine and maliciously motivated. Unlike overt and subtle sex discrimination, covert sex discrimination is very difficult to document and prove because records are not kept or are inaccessible and the victim may not even be aware she is a target. Forms of covert sex discrimination include tokenism and discrimination in the workplace. 7 notes
Main Term(s): Female victims
Index Term(s): Gender issues; Sex discrimination; Social conditions; Sociological analyses
Note: Reprinted from "Modern Sexism: Blatant, Subtle and Covert Discrimination" (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1986)
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