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NCJ Number: 156856 Find in a Library
Title: ACA and Prison Reform
Journal: Corrections Today  Volume:57  Issue:5  Dated:(August 1995)  Pages:70-73
Author(s): A P Travisono; M Q Hawkes
Date Published: 1995
Page Count: 4
Type: Historical Overview
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: The organization now known as the American Correctional Association emerged in the 1870's, during a wave of penal reform that turned policies away from the use of capital punishment and corporal punishment and toward incarceration as a more desirable and humane form of punishment.
Abstract: The debate during that era focused on the best method to encourage inmate reform: the Pennsylvania system of solitary confinement, silence, and work or the New York system of congregate work, dining, and silence. Enoch Wines organized the National Congress on Penitentiary and Reformatory Discipline, held in October 1870. The conference discussed many topics: contract prison labor, indemnity for wrongful imprisonment, and executive clemency. The National Prison Association of the United States began with this conference and later became the American Correctional Association. The conference also produced two other innovations: the first reformatory, Elmira, and the International Prison Commission. The founders of the conference accomplished their goals of providing a national forum for persons concerned with prison reform, establishing a need for an international congress, and adopting the Declaration of Principles.
Main Term(s): History of corrections
Index Term(s): American Correctional Association (ACA); Corrections policies; Professional organizations
Note: From Building a Voice: 125 Years of History by Anthony P. Travisono and Mary Q. Hawkes
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http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=156856

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