skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 156860 Find in a Library
Title: Probation: Strength Through Association
Journal: Corrections Today  Volume:57  Issue:5  Dated:(August 1995)  Pages:100-104
Author(s): D G Evans
Date Published: 1995
Page Count: 4
Type: Historical Overview
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: Probation has its origins in 1841, has faced numerous issues and challenges over its history, and has formed and reorganized its professional associations while focusing on rehabilitation and balance in the criminal justice system.
Abstract: By 1878, Massachusetts passed legislation formalizing probation and providing authority to create a paid probation staff. The American Correctional Association has always supported probation. In 1907, a small number of probation officers founded the National Association of Probation Officers. The first directory of probation officers was published in 1911. The association held its first independent conference in 1913 and published its first annual proceedings in 1915. The issues faced in the early part of the 20th Century were similar to those of today. Until the 1960's, probation and its association had a clear focus and mission guided by the liberal reform ideals of that generation. However, disillusionment in the late 1960's led to the view that nothing works in corrections. In the 1970's, the American Probation and Parole Association was formed and committed itself to realistic and effective programming and stronger public support through an improved public image, sound leadership, less fragmentation, and increased professionalism. In the mid-1980's, the National Institute of Corrections funded a project to rethink probation. Although probation has proven to be adaptable, it faces many challenges. It is in the forefront or arguing for balance in the criminal justice system and this year issued its new vision statement. Photograph, text of vision statement, and 7 references
Main Term(s): History of corrections
Index Term(s): Corrections management; New York; Probation; Professional organizations
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.