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NCJ Number: 159447 Find in a Library
Title: Migration and Crime: A Framework for Discussion
Corporate Author: International Scientific and Professional Advisory Council
Date Published: 1995
Page Count: 62
Sponsoring Agency: International Scientific and Professional Advisory Council
Milano 20121, Italy
Sale Source: International Scientific and Professional Advisory Council
3, Piazzo Castello
Milano 20121,
Type: Issue Overview
Language: English
Country: Italy
Annotation: After a review of the history of migration, this paper examines factors in why people emigrate to another country, the involvement of criminal groups in migrant smuggling, factors in countries that contribute to migrant criminality, and what can be done about the migrant problem.
Abstract: Cross-border migration is not a new phenomenon; it has been with us as long as there have been borders, and it will most likely continue. A primary factor that contributes to migrations is "hard times" in the country of origin. People migrate from a situation they perceive as unbearable to increase their chance for a better life in a new country. Those who attempt to leave and enter countries illegally are at risk for a number of hazards. In terms of the logistics of entering a country illegally, migrants may be enticed by criminal organizations that promise to get them safely into a new country. This involves a heavy price, however, including risks for physical safety in the transit process and being in financial debt to brutal crime groups. After entering a country, whether legally or illegally, migrants are at risk of being enticed into crime if they do not become integrated into the legitimate socioeconomic network. Where immigrant communities are intact and exercise social control, this consequence can be prevented. Migrants are also subjected to xenophobic (fear of foreigners) reactions from long- time residents of the host country. Cultural differences are magnified under such situations, as political entrepreneurs may target certain minorities to be scapegoats so as to gain economic and political capital. Migration is likely to continue into the future. A constructive migration policy has been summarized by Jonas Widgren, Director of the International Center for Migration Policy Development. He states that the long-term solutions to the migration challenge are the same as those outlined for all other burning global problems that must be faced: stabilizing world population at a reasonable level, reinstalling human rights, reinforcing democracy, peacefully settling regional conflicts, halting economic protectionism, alleviating poverty, relieving the debt burden, increasing sound development aid, strengthening United Nations cooperation, and maintaining peace regionally and globally. 156 footnotes and a 107-item bibliography
Main Term(s): Criminology
Index Term(s): Alien criminality; Immigrants/Aliens; Immigration offenses; Smuggling/Trafficking
Note: Ancillary Meeting organized on the occasion of the United Nations' Ninth World Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, May 3, 1995, Cairo, Egypt.
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