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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 162000 Find in a Library
Title: Cocaine and Heroin in Europe 1983-93: A Cross-national Comparison of Trafficking and Prices
Journal: British Journal of Criminology  Volume:36  Issue:2  Dated:(Spring 1996)  Pages:255-281
Author(s): G Farrell; K Mansur; M Tullis
Date Published: 1996
Page Count: 27
Type: Statistics
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United Kingdom
Annotation: This article presents data on cocaine and heroin seizures, prices, and trafficking methods for Europe in the period 1983-93.
Abstract: The United Nations has conducted an annual survey of illicit drug traffic since the late 1940's. All member states receive a questionnaire (Annual Reports Questionnaire or ARQ) that requests details on the number and amount of seizures by law enforcement agencies, cultivation and harvest, wholesale and retail prices, manufacture, and diversion of drugs from licit channels. These reports were one source of data for this study. The second source of information consisted of reports of individual seizures of international significance by UN member states. These reports provide some additional information not available from the ARQ's, such as means and methods of transport, some information on the possible origins of the drugs, and some details on traffickers arrested. Data show that seizures, which provide some indirect indicator of trafficking, increased sharply for both drugs in the second half of the 1980's. Prices of both drugs showed a decline across the decade, and the prices of both drugs seemed to track each other. Data on the primary means of transport of cocaine and heroin into Europe lends support to an explanation of the price patterns in terms of the risk factors these impose for traffickers. The nature of the trafficking and the mechanism by which enforcement of trafficking laws is intended to impact upon the problem suggest that the rapid substitution of interdicted traffickers and routes is highly likely, and that current levels of enforcement will have little deterrent or preventive impact. Although the European drug scene is changing rapidly, not least due to political changes, the analysis may retain some general applicability. 13 tables, 3 figures, and 25 references
Main Term(s): Drug smuggling
Index Term(s): Cocaine; Crime in foreign countries; Drug law enforcement; Europe; Heroin
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