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NCJ Number: 162136 Find in a Library
Title: Chemical Dependency and Drug Testing in the Workplace
Journal: Western Journal of Medicine  Volume:152  Issue:5  Dated:(May 1990)  Pages:506-513
Author(s): J D Osterloh; C E Becker
Date Published: 1990
Page Count: 8
Type: Survey
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: Urine testing for drug use in the workplace is now widespread, with the prevalence of positive drug tests ranging from 0 to 15 percent and the prevalence of marijuana use being highest.
Abstract: Although it is prudent to rid the workplace of drugs, there is little scientific study on the relationship between drug use and such workplace outcomes as productivity and safety. Probable cause testing and pre-employment testing are the most common drug testing applications in the workplace. Random testing has been less accepted due to its higher costs, unresolved legal issues, and predictably poor test reliability. Legal issues have focused on the right of privacy, discrimination, and lack of due process. The legal cornerstone of a good drug testing program involves policies that are planned and agreed on by both labor and management. The National Institute on Drug Abuse is certifying laboratories engaged in drug testing. When done correctly, testing methods are less prone to error than in the past but screening tests can be defeated by adulterants. Although the incidence of false-positive test results is low, drug tests are less reliable when the prevalence of drug abuse is also low. Goals of employee drug testing are delineated, testing procedures and programs are described, and the need for employee assistance programs is demonstrated. 63 references
Main Term(s): Employee drug testing
Index Term(s): Drug abuse; Drug dependence; Drug testing; Drug use; Employee assistance programs; Marijuana; Substance abuse in the workplace; Urinalysis
Note: DCC
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