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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 163194 Find in a Library
Title: Japanese Corrections: Managing Convicted Offenders in an Orderly Society
Author(s): E H Johnson
Date Published: 1996
Page Count: 354
Sponsoring Agency: Southern Illinois University Press
Carbondale, IL 62901
Publication Number: ISBN 0-8093-1736-2
Sale Source: Southern Illinois University Press
Box 3697
Carbondale, IL 62901
United States of America
Type: Overview Text
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This analysis of the current Japanese corrections system focuses on the characteristics of the major program elements, how various personnel execute their responsibilities, and why the various duties and activities are conducted in a particular way.
Abstract: In comparing Japanese with American prison populations, the author notes that whereas American prison populations are large and often violent, Japan incarcerates relatively few offenders. In examining the cultural differences that have led to this difference, the book indicates that Japanese prosecutors are reluctant to refer defendants for trial, and the courts often suspend sentences for convicted felons. In Japan, two bureaus -- the Corrections Bureau and the Rehabilitation Bureau -- administer all Japanese correctional activities. Placing these bureaus in the organizational scheme of the Ministry of Justice, the author traces the history, describes the organizational ideologies, and outlines the special features of each. A central feature of the Japanese penal system is the industrial prison, a concept that met such fierce opposition in the United States that it lost almost all access to the free market by the 1940's. The history of the industrial prison in Japan is traced, noting that the industrial operations in adult institutions explain in part why there is almost no violence or escape attempts. Juvenile institutions enjoy similar success, even though they produce no industrial products, as they emphasize education, vocational training, and counseling. Japanese correctional officers rely on the community and on unsalaried volunteer probation officers for the supervision of probationers and parolees. Although Japanese courts regard probationary supervision as too punitive for most convicted defendants and return many to the community without supervision, the probation caseload is large. The responsibilities and operations of the Regional Parole Boards are described, along with the aid hostels (halfway houses) that are primarily operated by private organizations. 255 references and a subject index
Main Term(s): Corrections in foreign countries
Index Term(s): Community-based corrections (adult); Correctional facilities; Correctional industries; Correctional personnel; Corrections policies; Japan; Probation/parole volunteers
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