skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 166324 Add to Shopping cart Find in a Library
Title: Review and Critique of Empirical Studies of Rape Avoidance
Journal: Criminal Justice and Behavior  Volume:24  Issue:2  Dated:(June 1997)  Pages:177-204
Author(s): S E Ullman
Date Published: 1997
Page Count: 28
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Mental Health
Bethesda, MD 20852
Grant Number: MH-15750
Type: Research (Applied/Empirical)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: Published studies of rape avoidance are reviewed to evaluate the scientific basis for rape avoidance advice, and results are evaluated in light of conceptual and methodological limitations of the literature.
Abstract: Evidence consistently suggests the effectiveness of forceful resistance strategies to avoid rape. Few studies, however, have analyzed resistance within social and situational contexts of rape to provide situation-specific information about rape avoidance. Larger, representative community studies are needed in which a broader range of situational factors, resistance strategies, and assault outcomes are assessed. Interactions between contextual factors such as preassault alcohol use and the link between the victim-offender relationship and offense behavior should be tested, and data on the sequential ordering of offender attack and victim resistance should be analyzed to enhance prediction of the probability of completed rape and physical injury to victims. Assault-related variables are noted, such as assault location, time of day, weapon presence, environmental interventions, offender aggression, and victim resistance. Specific recommendations for future research on rape avoidance are offered. 78 references and 1 table
Main Term(s): Crime prevention measures
Index Term(s): Crime specific countermeasures; Rape prevention programs; Rape research; Sexual assault victims; Victim resistance to attack
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.