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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 168130 Find in a Library
Title: Penitentiaries, Visions of Class, and Export Economies: Brazil and Argentina Compared (From Birth of the Penitentiary in Latin America: Essays on Criminology, Prison Reform, and Social Control, 1830-1940, P 194-223, 1996, Ricardo D. Salvatore and Carlos Aguirre, eds. - See NCJ-168123)
Author(s): R D Salvatore
Date Published: 1996
Page Count: 30
Sponsoring Agency: University of Texas Press
Austin, TX 78722
Sale Source: University of Texas Press
Marketing Manager
2100 Comal Street
P.O. Box 7819
Austin, TX 78722
United States of America
Type: Issue Overview
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This essay compares positivist criminology in Argentina and Brazil and its influence in shaping the discourse of prison and penal reform in these two countries.
Abstract: The language of criminologists provides insights for studying the interconnection between prison reform and contending discourses about social questions in two countries experiencing rapid integration into the world market. Argentina and Brazil both faced new social problems associated with the emergence of a predominantly immigrant, urban and mobile working class, but responded differently to the challenges of criminality. While Brazilian criminologists found race useful for explaining the country's economic backwardness and the lack of integration of the peasant majorities into the project of progress, Argentine criminologists emphasized the influence of the social environment of the city and the psychopathological traits of individuals to explicate criminal behavior. Endowed with the new powers of observation gained from the penitentiary-as-clinic, criminologists interpreted the social question and evaluated the consequences of export-led growth on social control. As a result, a similar type of knowledge served to construct two different criminalities and two distinct social questions. Notes
Main Term(s): Corrections
Index Term(s): Argentina; Brazil; Correctional reform; Criminology; Cultural influences; Foreign criminal justice research; History of corrections; Latin America; Penology; Political influences
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