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NCJ Number: 170155 Find in a Library
Title: Terrorism by the State (From Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century, P 76-98, 1997, Cindy C. Combs -- See NCJ-170150)
Author(s): C C Combs
Date Published: 1997
Page Count: 23
Sponsoring Agency: Prentice-Hall, Inc
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Sale Source: Prentice-Hall, Inc
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
United States of America
Type: Issue Overview
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This chapter reviews the scope of terrorism practiced by some states.
Abstract: "Internal" state terrorism involves the use of violence and intimidation by state officials and institutions against the citizens of the state to gain their submission to authoritarian rule. At least three levels of internal state terrorism have been identified as useful gradations in understanding the scope of terrorism practiced by the state. The first is intimidation, in which the government tries to anticipate and discourage opposition and dissent, frequently through control of the media and profligate use of police force. This form of state terrorism has existed in almost every nation-state at some point in its history, most often during times of war. A second level of internal state terrorism is coerced conversion, which involves government efforts to create a complete change in a national lifestyle. A third level of internal state terrorism is genocide, whereby the state engages in the deliberate extermination of an entire class or ethnic or religious group for ideological reasons. Coercive measures within the state constitute only one form of state terrorism. There are at least two other forms of state terrorism that have become prevalent in recent years. Clandestine state terrorism involves a direct, but not open, participation by state agents in terrorist activities. Surrogate terrorism is where a state provides resources and technical assistance of surrogates whose activities are viewed by the supporting state as helpful to their aims in dealing with other countries and opposing ideologies. State terrorism is often served by the booming sale of arms by technologically advanced countries to such countries as Libya and Iran, who make no secret of their propagation of terrorism. 9 suggested readings and 23 notes
Main Term(s): Criminology
Index Term(s): State sponsored terrorism; Terrorist tactics; Terrorist weapons
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