skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 170539 Find in a Library
Title: Controlling Crime Before It Happens: Risk-Focused Prevention
Journal: National Institute of Justice Journal  Issue:229  Dated:(August 1995)  Pages:10-18
Author(s): J D Hawkins
Date Published: 1995
Page Count: 9
Sponsoring Agency: NCJRS Photocopy Services
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
Sale Source: NCJRS Photocopy Services
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
United States of America
Document: PDF
Type: Report (Technical Assistance)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This article explains the benefits and use of a public health model for violence prevention, based on determining and addressing the risk factors for youth violence and strengthening the protective factors that buffer the effects of exposure to risk.
Abstract: The public health model that has substantially reduced the incidence of cardiovascular disease focused on identifying and addressing both risk and protective factors. Longitudinal research has identified factors that are associated with neighborhoods and communities, the family, the schools, peer groups, and individuals and that increase the probability of violence during adolescence and young adulthood. The five neighborhood risk factors are the availability of guns, community laws and norms favorable to crime, media portrayals of violence, low neighborhood attachment and community disorganization, and extreme economic deprivation. Family factors include poor family management factors, family conflict, and favorable parental attitudes and involvement in violent behavior. School factors include antisocial behavior in kindergarten through third grade and academic failure. Peer and individual factors include friends involved in problem behavior, early initiation of problem behavior, and biological or physiological factors such as lack of impulse control. The three categories of protective factors include individual characteristics, bonding, and healthy beliefs and clear standards. Community leaders who design prevention strategies should focus on known risk factors, gear prevention to the appropriate developmental stages, use early intervention, and use multiple strategies. The criminal justice system should use community policing and other approaches to establish partnerships with other organizations in the community to design violence prevention strategies. Figures, photographs, and reference notes
Main Term(s): Juvenile delinquency prevention
Index Term(s): Juvenile delinquency factors; Violence prevention
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.