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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 181818 Find in a Library
Title: Punishment (From Global Report on Crime and Justice, P 89-120, 1999, Graeme Newman, ed.)
Author(s): Hiroyuki Shinkai; Ugljesa Zvekic
Corporate Author: United Nations
United States of America
Editor(s): Graeme Newman
Date Published: 1999
Page Count: 32
Sponsoring Agency: Oxford University Press, Inc
New York, NY 10016
United Nations
New York, NY 10017
Sale Source: Oxford University Press, Inc
198 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10016
United States of America
Type: Survey
Format: Book (Softbound)
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: An overview of the situation of punishment throughout the world is presented, based primarily on the results of the fifth United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operation of Criminal Justice Systems and the International Crime Victim Survey.
Abstract: For serious crimes, prison is the universal sanction and is applied more than any other punishment, regardless of the legal system or the level of development of a country. There are wide variations, however, in the prison rates of various countries and these do not appear to depend on the amount of crime in a country. There are vast differences among countries; some show enormous increases in prison populations, while others show decreases. Prison rates have particularly increased in countries in transition. Parole is not widely used throughout the world, but is frequently used by developed western countries. A small number of countries report statistics that suggest prison populations exceed their prison capacity. Developing countries tend to have more prisoners awaiting trial than developed countries. The movement toward restriction and abolition of the death penalty is not universal. Abolitionist countries are predominantly in Europe and Latin America. The fine is the most frequently used non-custodial sanction, regardless of the level of development in a country. Non-custodial sanctions are used less in the regions of Africa, Latin America, and Asia than in the rest of the world. Public attitudes toward punishment generally conform to actual sentencing options available. In developing countries and countries in transition, the public displays a marked preference for prison as a punishment. 14 tables and 22 figures
Main Term(s): World criminology
Index Term(s): Africa; Asia; Capital punishment; Corrections in foreign countries; Crime in foreign countries; Developing Countries; Europe; Fines; Foreign correctional facilities; Foreign correctional systems; Foreign criminal justice systems; Foreign inmates; Foreign offenders; Foreign probation or parole services; Foreign sentencing; Incarceration; Latin America; Prison overcrowding; Public Opinion of Corrections; Punishment; Victimization surveys
Note: International Crime
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