skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 182150 Find in a Library
Title: Sex Differences in Proximal Humeral Outline Shape: Elliptical Fourier Functions
Journal: Journal of Forensic Sciences  Volume:45  Issue:2  Dated:March 2000  Pages:292-302
Author(s): Hideyuki Tanaka Ph.D.; Pete E. Lestrel Ph.D.; Teruo Uetake Ph.D.; Susumu Kato Ph.D.; Fumio Ohtsuki Ph.D.
Date Published: March 2000
Page Count: 11
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This article presents a method for the numerical analysis of gender differences in size and shape of the proximal humeral outlines, using elliptical Fourier functions (EFFs).
Abstract: A skeletal sample that consisted of right and left humeri pairs of 69 individuals (36 males and 33 females) was used. The proximal superior view in the plane of the proximo-distal axis of each humerus was photographed, and then 54 boundary points were located on the two-dimensional outline tracings. These points were digitized and used to compute EFFs with 27 harmonics. From the EFFs, a set of expected points on the proximal humeral outline was generated, using the centroid as an origin. Superimposition of the male and female outlines on this centroid provided a detailed picture of the relative gender differences in size and shape with respect to that center. The bounded area of the proximal humeral outline showed statistically significant gender differences. Additionally, statistical results of the amplitudes derived from the "area-standardized" EFFs and visual assessments of the mean outline lots indicated significant gender differences in shape of the proximal humeral outlines. Focusing on localized regional differences, the greater tubercle was located more postero-medially, and the lesser tubercle was located more anteriorly in the males compared to the females. Gender determinations from the proximal humeri were also examined with discriminant functions based on the amplitudes, which represent shape characteristics of the outline, and the bounded area. Using a cross-validation method, predictions of the percentages of cases correctly classified with the discriminant functions ranged from 92.8 percent to 95.7 percent for the right and left humeral data. These results suggest that differences in size and shape of the proximal humeral outlines may be better predictors of gender when compared with conventional measurements of the humerus. 8 figures, 6 tables, and 34 references
Main Term(s): Science and Technology
Index Term(s): Forensic anthropology; Forensic sciences; Gender determination; Investigative techniques; Victim identification
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.