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NCJ Number: 182937 Find in a Library
Title: Actualizing Probation in an Actuarial Age
Journal: Corrections Management Quarterly  Volume:4  Issue:2  Dated:Spring 2000  Pages:17-22
Author(s): Donald G. Evans
Date Published: 2000
Page Count: 6
Type: Issue Overview
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This article discusses the rise of the actuarial society and suggests ways in which probation can be relevant in this society.
Abstract: Freely and Simon, in their seminal article published in 1992, identify elements of a new penology. Whereas the "old" penology is rooted in a concern for individuals and is preoccupied with such concepts as guilty, responsibility, and obligation, as well as diagnosis, intervention, and treatment of the individual offender, the "new" penology is actuarial; i.e., it is concerned with techniques for identifying, classifying, and managing groups assorted by levels of dangerousness. It takes crime for granted. It accepts deviance as normal. The aim is not to intervene in individual lives for the purpose of ascertaining responsibility, making the guilty pay for their crime, or changing them. Rather it seeks to regulate groups as part of a strategy of managing danger. Probation has been responsive to the pressures of the actuarial approach. There has been close surveillance and targeting of high-risk offenders, as well as an emphasis on using probation authority to intervene earlier and faster in the offender's supervision period. High rates of revocation are viewed as preventive measures. Under the actuarial approach, four components are important. First, more attention must be given to strength-based rather than deficit-based models of assessment, as well as the development of valid assessment tools. Second, programs for offenders should be based on research and efforts to ensure the integrity of programs. The third area requiring attention is the enforcement of probation orders and conditions. Finally, the development of meaningful partnerships is essential. A relevant European model of probation and aftercare is described. 22 references
Main Term(s): Corrections management
Index Term(s): Probation casework; Probation conditions; Probation effectiveness; Probation management; Probation or parole services; Probation violations
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