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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 185196 Find in a Library
Title: Corrections (From Criminology, Seventh Edition, P 573-610, 2000, Larry J. Siegel, -- See NCJ-185178)
Author(s): Larry J. Siegel Ph.D.
Date Published: 2000
Page Count: 38
Sponsoring Agency: Wadsworth Publishing Co
Belmont, CA 94002
Sale Source: Wadsworth Publishing Co
Ten Davis Drive
Belmont, CA 94002
United States of America
Type: Overview Text
Format: Book (Hardbound)
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: The field of corrections involves the punishment, treatment, and incapacitation of convicted criminal offenders, and methods of punishing offenders have undergone many changes throughout history.
Abstract: At first, fines were levied to compensate victims and their families for losses. Then, cruel corporal and capital punishments were developed. The mercantile system and the development of overseas colonies created the need for labor so slavery and forced labor began to replace physical punishment. In the late 18th century, the death penalty began to be used once again. Reformers pushed for alternatives to harsh, physical punishment, and the prison developed as an alternative that promised to reform and rehabilitate offenders. However, early institutions were brutal places featuring silence, corporal punishment, work details, and prisoner warehousing. At the beginning of the 20th century, reformers began to introduce such measures as educational training and counseling for inmates. Today, corrections can be divided into four components: community-based corrections, jails, prisons, and parole programs. Many convicted offenders are treated in the community. Some are put on probation under the supervision of local probation departments. If they obey the rules of probation, they are allowed to serve their sentences in the community. A new development involves intermediate sanctions, such as fines, forfeiture, intensive probation supervision, house arrest, and electronic monitoring. Jails house misdemeanant offenders awaiting trial, while prisons house convicted felony offenders. Parole officers supervise inmates in the community while they complete their sentences. There is little evidence, however, that corrections and parole actually work, and a significant number of released inmates recidivate. 187 notes, 5 tables, 5 figures, and 6 photographs
Main Term(s): Corrections effectiveness
Index Term(s): Alternatives to institutionalization; Community-based corrections (adult); Correctional facilities; Criminology; Electronic monitoring of offenders; Fines; History of corrections; Incarceration; Intensive probation; Intensive supervision programs; Intermediate sanctions; Jails; Parole; Probation; Punishment
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