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NCJ Number: 192440 Find in a Library
Title: Examination of Cross-National Variation in Punitiveness
Journal: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology  Volume:45  Issue:6  Dated:December 2001  Pages:691-710
Author(s): Jerome L. Neapolitan
Date Published: December 2001
Page Count: 20
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This research examined why nations differ as to rates of imprisonment, prison conditions, and the use of capital punishment.
Abstract: Variables that represent the major theoretical perspectives were used to examine differences in a much larger sample of nations than has been used in previous research. Regression analysis indicated that homicide rates and, to a lesser degree, total crime rates had positive associations with prison rates; whereas, street-level law enforcement had a negative association. Dummy variables that represented nations grouped by geographic region indicated a historical-cultural component in the use of imprisonment. Little to no support was found for civilization theory, inequality, or unemployment variables. Discriminant analysis indicated that degree of human development and freedom, as well as inequality, helped classify nations according to prison conditions; whereas, the freedom variable helped classify nations that did and did not use capital punishment. Dummy geographic region variables were important in classifying nations by prison conditions and capital punishment, again indicating the probable importance of historical-cultural factors. 6 tables and 72 references
Main Term(s): Corrections policies
Index Term(s): Capital punishment; Corrections in foreign countries; Cross-cultural analyses; Cross-cultural comparisons; Incarceration; Prison conditions
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