skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 192649 Find in a Library
Title: Nondirective Counseling: Theory and Practice (From Correctional Assessment, Casework, and Counseling, P 161-184, 2001, Anthony Walsh, -- See NCJ-192641)
Author(s): Anthony Walsh
Date Published: 2001
Page Count: 24
Sponsoring Agency: American Correctional Assoc
Alexandria, VA 22314
Sale Source: American Correctional Assoc
206 N. Washington St., Suite 200
Alexandria, VA 22314
United States of America
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Book (Softbound)
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This chapter describes the theory and practice of nondirective counseling.
Abstract: The point of counseling in the correctional setting is to help offenders to help themselves to feel better and to become more productive members of society. Advice giving must be avoided in a counseling situation unless specifically requested. Learning and discovery ultimately can come only from within the client; that is the real task confronting the counselor. Counselors attempt to help offenders with specific life-adjustment problems and to develop the personality that already exists. Counseling is a series of concerned responses offered to offenders who have concerns and problems that adversely affect their functioning. It is essentially an extension of the interviewing process and uses the same communication skills and techniques. The differences between counseling and interviewing are the likelihood of encountering offender resistance during the counseling process; and the depth of the counseling process. Correctional counseling is defined as an ongoing, positive, interpersonal relationship between offender and counselor for the purpose of increasing the offender’s feelings of self-satisfaction, and improving his or her social adjustments. Psychoanalysis and client-centered counseling are nondirective forms of counseling. They put great faith in their patients’ or clients’ ability to discover their own capabilities and find their own directions. Counselors play a relatively passive role and are reluctant to impose their values on patients/clients and provide them with direction. Psychoanalysis and client-centered therapy are rarely used in a correctional setting because they are too nondirective, and because the terminology and concepts are too difficult. The usefulness of Freudian psychoanalysis to the criminal justice worker is in its profound insights into human nature. The counselor should possess three attributes: unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and empathy. Primary empathy is the communication to offenders of an initial basic understanding of what they are saying. Advanced empathy implies a deeper understanding. Empathy is developed only by experience, by learning about human behavior, and by really caring about what the offender is trying to communicate. 28 references
Main Term(s): Correctional counselor training; Counseling techniques
Index Term(s): Correctional Personnel Training; Counseling; Counseling in correctional settings; Counselors; Inmate treatment; Psychologists role in criminal justice
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.